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# Vahid garousi phd thesis proposal

Claude Shannon 1916-2001

Consider a compact disk within microscope and you’ll see music symbolized like a sequence of pits, or perhaps in mathematical terms, like a sequence of 0’s and 1’s, generally known as bits. The building blocks in our Information Age is that this transformation of speech, audio, images and video into digital content, anf the husband who began digital revolution was Claude Shannon, who died Feb 24, at age 84, following a lengthy have a problem with Alzheimer’s.

Shannon showed up in the revolutionary concept of digital representation by sampling the data source in an appropriate rate, and converting the samples to some bit stream. He characterised the origin with a single number, the entropy, adapting a phrase from record mechanics, to evaluate the data content from the source. For British language text, Shannon viewed entropy like a record parameter that measured just how much details are created around the average by each letter. Also, he produced coding theory, by presenting redundancy in to the digital representation to safeguard against corruption. If today you are taking a concise disc in a single hands, take a set of scissors within the other hands, and score the disc along a radius in the center towards the edge, then you will notice that the disc still plays as though new.

Before Shannon, it had been generally thought that the only method of achieving arbitrarily small possibility of error inside a communication funnel ended up being to lessen the transmission rate to zero. All of this altered in 1948 using the publication of the Mathematical Theory of Communication, where Shannon characterised a funnel with a single parameter the funnel capacity, and demonstrated it had become easy to transmit information anyway below capacity by having an arbitrarily small possibility of error.

His approach to proof ended up being to show the presence of just one good code by averaging total possible codes. His paper established fundamental limits around the efficiency of communication over noisy channels, and presented the task to find groups of codes that achieve capacity. The technique of random coding doesn’t provide an explicit illustration of a great code, and actually it’s taken half a century for coding theorists to uncover codes which come near to these fundamental limits on phone line channels.

The significance of Shannon&#146s work was recognized immediately. Based on a 1953 issue of Fortune Magazine: It might be no exaggeration to state that man’s progress in peace, and peace of mind in war, depend more about fruitful applying information theory than you are on physical demonstrations, in both bombs or perhaps in power plants, that Einstein’s famous equation works. Actually his work is becoming more essential with time using the creation of deep space communication, wireless phones, high-speed data systems, the web, and merchandise like compact disk players, hard disk drives, and speed modems which make essential utilization of coding and knowledge compression to enhance speed and reliability.

Shannon increased in Gaylord Michigan, and started his education in the College of Michigan, where he majored both in Mathematics and Electrical Engineering. Like a graduate student at Durch, his knowledge of both mathematics of Boolean Algebra and the concept of circuit design created what H.H.

Goldstine known as: probably the most important master’s theses ever written. a landmark for the reason that it altered circuit design from a skill to some science. This thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits, designed in 1936, provided mathematical approaches for creating a network of switches and relays to understand a particular logical function, like a combination lock. It won the Alfred Noble Prize from the combined engineering societies of america and it is fundamental in the style of digital computers and integrated circuits.

Shannon’s curiosity about circuit design wasn’t purely theoretical, for also, he loved to construct, and the feeling of play is apparent in lots of of his creations. Within the 1950’s, when computers received names like ENIAC (Electronic Statistical Integrator and Calculator) Shannon built a pc known as THROBAC I ( THrifty ROman-numeral BAckward-searching Computer), which could add, take away, multiply as well as divide figures as much as 85 working just with Roman numerals. His study in Winchester Mass. was full of such devices, together with a maze-solving mechanical mouse along with a miraculous juggling machine. Traversing the ceiling would be a rotating chain, like individuals at dry cleaners, that were suspended the gowns from the score of honorary doctorates. They provided a marvelous sight floating the area.

Shannon’s 1941 doctorate dissertation, around the mathematical theory of genetics, isn’t as well-known as his master’s thesis, and actually wasn’t printed until 1993, through which time the majority of the results have been acquired individually by others. After graduating from Durch, Shannon spent annually in the Institute for Advanced Study, which is the time where he started to build up his theoretical framework that cause his 1948 paper on communication in the existence of noise. He became a member of Bell Labs in 1941, and continued to be there for fifteen years, then he came back to Durch. During The Second World War his focus on file encryption brought somewhere utilized by Roosevelt and Churchill for transoceanic conferences, and inspired his pioneering focus on the mathematical theory of cryptography.

It had been at Bell Labs that Shannon created the number of papers that transformed the planet, which transformation continues today. In 1948, Shannon was connecting information theory and physics by developing his new perspective on entropy and it is regards to the laws and regulations of thermodynamics. That connection is beginning to change today. as others explore the implications of quantum computing, by enlarging information theory to deal with the transmission and processing of quantum states.

Shannon must rank presents itself their email list from the major figures of Last Century science, though his name is comparatively unknown to everyone. His affect on everyday existence, that is already tremendous, are only able to increase with the passing of time.

Robert Calderbank and Neil J. A. Sloane