(This proposal form should total a maximum of 1000 words, excluding bibliographical information incorporated in recommended literature.)
MA Worldwide Relations
To research the motivations and objectives inside the George W. Plant administration for that invasion of Iraq in March 2003.
To think about the plethora of motivating factors that arrived to the considering the administration. This is made by searching in the relevant – printed – primary sources and an array of the secondary materials.
What exactly are motivations? and What exactly are objectives? How can we assess these? Just how much overlap can there be? Where would be the helpful distinctions?
– Public justifications versus Private validation – Assessing motivations of key protagonists is tough given their convenience of secrecy and the lack of corroborating documents because of them not getting been released. (Indeed quite a lot might not be available for several years considering that there’s Presidential discretion with what is positioned in Presidential Libraries).
– unintended effects (worth of six many years of hindsight) – Iraq has demonstrated to become a recruiting sergeant for insurgent Al’queda, required the attention from the ball in Afghanistan and it has permitted Taliban to regroup.
Possible Chapters (second order analysis/questions (?))
That which was the threat from Iraq?
– Bottom – Rouge leader snubbing (US brought) world order – couldn’t be tolerated through the administration and also the legacy from 1991 for Saddam and also the US. For Saddam, he’d proven he had was to the US and survived, indeed prospered – because the Republican Guard was still being at his disposal and that he could exploit the Oil for Food programme to his personal benefit and also the hindrance of countless Iraqis.
For that US, based on the administration Saddam had unsuccessful to conform using the resolutions ending the 1991 conflict.
Connect to Worldwide Terrorism – misguided and tenuous
WMD programme – He’d used them formerly on Al Habja coupled with were built with a dedicated Chemical Weapons programme. Plus formerly he’d been developing the nuclear programme as much as 1982 and also the Israeli attack on Osirak.
– Saddam’s rhetoric was he had them and that he would rely on them. He’d stated he’d make Kuwait a bloodbath in 1991.
– The United nations inspection regime have been thwarted within their operation – despite not finding anything. Ref: Hendes Blix
– The possibility of believing opposition HUMINT.
Message to Rogue States (Axis of Evil)
Iran – made approach after 9/11 consider Axis of Evil speech have grown to be growing recalcitrant especially re. Israel and wiping them back the face area from the map. Plus happen to be supporting or at best condoning the insurgency/division of Iraq between Suni and Shia.
Syria – appeared to operate as they’ve been more conciliatory but have possibly been supporting challenges to Israel.
North Korea – as always tough to determine but until lately have been trying to South Korea’s Sunshine policy. In hindsight might have increased the introduction of their nuclear programme (and it was a late accessory for the Axis to avoid it appearing anti-nuclear.)
Libya – unnamed but Gadaffi have been lengthy time critic with the aid of British track-two diplomacy, Libya decommissioned its WMD programmes.
Worldwide dimension Coalition from the Willing
Exposure to United nations – resolution 1441 a justification/John Bolton as US Ambassador to United nations – a simple distrust from the United nations born from its difficulties within the 1990s (legacy of Somalia, failures in Bosnia and Rwanda and also the Oil for Food corruption.)
Middle East Peace Process – the MEP wasn’t prioritised within the administration and thought of being intoxicated by the Israel lobby (frequently overstated among the large number of lobbyists inside a $4bn industry).
Democratising the center East – a brand new iteration from the Domino effect was mtss is a substantive agenda in western understandings of Democracy once the administration supported/was determined by the Saudi and Pakistan regimes – each of which would struggle that need considering democracies in many respects.
Coalition from the Willing
– Blair getting a vital ally towards the party the same shape as the United kingdom capacity (Special Forces and Intelligence), but additionally authenticity despite his difficulties domestically.
– Old Europe and New Europe – the eagerness of recent Europe to participate in as the French/Spanish people were reluctant – countering the Many of us are Americans now Le Monde headline September 12 th .
Publish 9/11 context – The outcome from the 9/11 attacks around the psychology and emotion from the U . s . States (So why do they hate our freedom?)
American Exceptionalism – tradition of Manifest Future.
George Plant – like a War President and also the US was on the War footing – how about his beliefs?
Players: Colin Powell, Condi Grain, Dick Cheney, Don Rumsfeld after which Paul Wolfowitz and also the Neo Cons / Vulcans.
The logistics were in position in the centre East – the mission might be done operationally.
Publish-Afghanistan hubris – had proven the U . s . States could do expeditionary warfare with a mix of Special Forces and overwhelming air power.
Fulfilment of Plant Doctrine – the idea of pre-emption and Rumsfeld’s Transformation from the military in the Government.
The stars were aligned – means and chance – The issue grew to become not why, but why don’t you?
– The Plant Administration was disposed to think about the threats – and also the thought of threat – although not preordained to invade Iraq.
– 9/11 increased senses: so to speak to search for monster as well as in Saddam they found someone.
– The administration’s internal dynamics narrowed instead of broadened choices
Concern to not be too narrative – this must retain critical analysis without just criticising.
Relevant Primary Sources
The Safety COUNCIL, 27 The month of january 2003 Report Executive Chairman of UNMOVIC, Dr. Hendes Blix world wide web.united nations.org/Depts/unmovic/Bx27.htm
Likely Secondary Sources
Ivo Dadler and James M. Lindsay, America Unbound: The Plant Revolution in Foreign Policy (2005)
G. John Ikenberry, Thomas J. Knock, Anne-Marie Slaughter, and Tony Cruz, The Crisis of yankee Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism for that Twenty-first Century: Wilsonianism within the Twenty-First Century (2008)
Bruce Jentleson, With Buddies Such As These: Reagan, Plant and Saddam, 1982-90 (1995)
Robert Kagan, The Return in history and also the Finish of Dreams (2008)
James Mann, Rise from the Vulcans: A Brief History of Bush’s War Cabinet (2004)
Alexander Moens, The Foreign Policy of George W. Plant: Values, Strategy and Loyalty (2004)
Illan Peleg, The Legacy of George W. Bush’s Foreign Policy: Moving Beyond Neoconservatism: Moving Beyond Foreign Policy (2009)
Take advantage of Singh and Tim Lynch, After Plant – The Situation for Continuity (Cambridge College Press, 2008)
Tony Cruz, A Pact using the Demon Washington’s Bid for World Supremacy and also the Unfaithfulness from the American Promise (2006)
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in the usa (1835/1840)
Bob Woodward, Plant at War (2002), Condition of War (2004), Condition of Denial (2006)