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Non wood forest products thesis proposal

Non wood forest products thesis proposal Environmental Protection and Ethnobotanical Importance


Maqui berry farmers along with other rural occupants possess considerable indigenous understanding as a result of their lengthy usage of NWFPs. This understanding is chiefly documented through ethnobotanical surveys. Ethnobotanical details are required for assessing plant diversity, intra-specific variation, choice of superior strains, adaptation and the development of NWFP species within traditional farming systems. The farmers’ vision in addition to their classification of bio-diversity was used in recent focus on indigenous fruit trees in Nigeria (Okafor, 1990), and it is presented within this paper. The issues along with the prospects for conservation of bio-diversity (including NWFPs) as perceived by maqui berry farmers are crucial in focusing and applying research on NWFPs (Okafor, 1995). The opportunity of commercial exploitation of indigenous species is discussed. The main training learned from player-participatory projects, along with a recommended plan of action, will also be highlighted.

Key phrases: Non-wood forest products, indigenous understanding, genetic diversity, ethnobotany

1. The significance of indigenous understanding

Maqui berry farmers and forest dwelling people possess a lot of indigenous understanding as a result of their usage of NWFPs and farming crops. Residents understand the extent of variation along with the traits displayed by genetically superior individual trees or infraspecific taxa. This understanding of tree-to-tree variation and consumption uses is efficacious in NWFP development and research. This paper examines the genetic gain along with other contributions produced by player understanding poor applied NWFP research, through extensive ethnobotanical and socio-economic surveys.

Non wood forest products thesis proposal at the individual, community, local

2. What’s ethnobotanical information?

The data that local neighborhoods possess regarding their natural sources are focused on how vegetation is used, how plant sources are distributed over the environments they manage, the classification and identification of plant diversity, and also the relationships between plants, people and creatures within their ecosystem (Eyzaguirre, 1995 Aameeruddy, 1994). Ethnobotanical information which hails from ethnobotanical and socio-economic surveys and literature reviews frequently represents the indigenous understanding of residents. The farmer’s vision of bio-diversity classification can also be frequently crucial for NWFP development and research.

3. Surveys to acquire a concept of indigenous understanding (IK)

The process and techniques adopted in performing ethnobotanical and socio-economic surveys, which generate info on IK, (Shepherd and Okafor, 1991) contain the next:

· Stratification from the area based on environmental zones, urban and rural setting

· Choice of sample villages or communities

· Village group conferences

· Interviews with key informants using structured questionnaire forms

· Study of natural sources from the area including purposes of forests, wild and grown species

· Traditional classification systems according to environmental distribution, taxonomic differentiation with regards to local cultivar designations (e.g. fruit types, phenological attributes etc.) and social symbolic roles

Non wood forest products thesis proposal and emerging novel products that

· Field observation from the traditional farming systems including home gardens/compound farm subsystems and fetish groves

· Market survey to document various products emanating in the local atmosphere

· Assortment of herbarium examples, seeds, seedlings and wood samples to authenticate the different products identified throughout the various stages from the survey.

4. Using ethnobotanical information to focus on collecting and growth and development of plant genetic sources of NWFPs

Eyzaguire (1995) has mentioned that ethnobotanical details are required for assessing diversity and adaptation of crops which in eco-geographical terms much still remains discovered socio-eco-edaphic diversity of crops, and also to understand crop adaptation to micro-niches and micro environments. When collecting genetic sources of cultivated and economically helpful species, ethnobotanical information (including cultural variations, the socio-economic systems, the institutional atmosphere, in addition to land use locations) is essential in individuals places that collecting can capture significant variation inside the species. Ethnobotanical details are also required for identifying micro-environments and niches (spatial and temporal) inside the farming system and it is surrounding non-farming environments.

Finally, ethnobotanical data provides info on selection and intra-specific variation, the variation of plants for their atmosphere (i.e. warning signs of a plant’s competitive, complementary and symbiotic relationships along with other species, and it is potential to deal with unwanted pests and illnesses). The use of ethnobotanical details are helpful in NWFP research (mainly in the domestication and choice of preferred genotypes of fruit trees) inside the forest zone of Nigeria, as discussed below.

5. Selection

5.1. Diversity

The large selection of forest species as well as their corresponding multivarious selection of uses illustrate one part of the diversity of NWFPs in tropical West Africa. The presence of natural variation within fruit trees, leading to well-defined intra specific taxa sometimes at varietal level, is yet another facet of diversity. These two facets of diversity are very important in efforts targeted at the domestication of edible forest species (Okafor, 1985).

Throughout our research, 19 quickly-disappearing woodsy species were selected for intensive study by our programme (funded through the Bio-diversity Support Programme around the globe Wildlife Fund). These species were selected due to their importance as known causes of spices, fruits, nuts, seeds and leafy vegetables, and were recognized by maqui berry farmers to be of primary importance for his or her livelihoods.

5.2. The extent of intraspecific variation

The presence of intraspecific variation is helpful within the selection, breeding and usage of many tree species (Whitmore, 1976 Okafor, 1980a). Types of varietal delimitation in West African fruit trees include Irvingiagabonensis (Okafor, 1975), by which among the varieties was elevated towards the rank of species (Irvingiawombolu ) by Harris (1996) Treculiaafricana subsp. african (Okafor, 1981b) and Dacryodesedulis (Okafor, 1983). These examples show great possibility of extending the time of fruit availability, growing the plethora of products and yield, and selecting the preferred pattern, along with the season of yield (Okafor, 1978, 1981a Okigbo, 1977). Some taxa also exhibit intraspecific variation in traits for example more profuse flowering, early flowering, lower height of fruit set, greater yields of fruit, and quality of fruits, than the others (Okafor 1985).

Table 1. Species studies with ethnobotanical value (Okafor, et al.. 1996a)

Vernacular Name (ibo. British)

Leafy vegetable
Leafy Vegetable
Leafy vegetable

5.3. Bio-diversity: The farmer’s vision

Aumeeruddy (1994) reports several accounts which offer the view that traditional societies their very own systems of classification, in line with the representation from the natural world. For instance, plants might be classified into hot or cold, based on wider symbolic representations from the atmosphere. Based on this mode of classification, all aspects of the atmosphere, whether inert or alive, are attributed a cold or hot value. Water is connected with cold. Consequently the rivers, springs and flooded low-laying land are cold, much like the plants connected together. Any plant with fleshy parts and watery exudate is considered like a cold plant. Plants by having an acidity taste will also be considered cold, much like species with strong and chronic perfumes, for example Ocimum spp. and people from the ginger root family, Zingiberaceae .

Hot vegetation is individuals by having an irritant character (latex or irritant leaves) or very spicy perfumes. They are plants that to produce hot essence which distinguishes them using their company cold perfumed plants for example Ocimum spp. Spiny plants and plants which dry up soils (e.g. Imperatacylindrica ) will also be hot plants. The classification of plants as either cold or hot has various implications regarding plant use, particularly medicinal and food plants, in addition to farming practices (Aumeeruddy, 1994).

Another system of classification, founded upon symbolic representation separating plants into men and women based on functional, utilization, environmental distribution or morphological attributes, can also be utilized in Nigeria. Plants are called male or female based on criteria like the shape and size from the fruit, period of internodes, leaf pilosity (hairiness), etc. Some vegetation is also classified based on their distribution. For instance, Uvariachamea can be found in distant farms and fallows that are known as `uda ofia’, the name through which the guarana plant can also be referred. This really is dissimilar to some people from the Xylopia genus that are known as simply, `uda’, on compound farms.

Undoubtedly, these indigenous classification systems are fundamental within the identification and employ of bio-diversity.

5.4. Pre-requisites and stages of selection

The variety and variation of NWFP species supply the grounds for choice of superior strains. The very first prerequisite for selection may be the accessibility to information and distribution data around the types of interest. This involves surveys and search for natural forests, traditional farms, local and concrete markets and relevant literature, along with the identification, classification and general look at NWFP species, e.g. indigenous fruit trees (Okafor, 1993). The 2nd prerequisite is study regarding their taxonomic variation and phenology.

5.5. Parameters considered in picking a superior strains

As highlighted in Table 2, the next parameters or desirable figures were identified for 3 from the study species.

Table 2. Desirable characteristics for 3 sought after agroforestry trees (Okafor, 1990)

Irvingia gabonesis wombolu

7. The opportunity of commercial exploitation of indigenous species

Numerous foods from forest/farm species which have significant commercial potential happen to be explained Okafor (1991), Okafor and Lamb (1994), Okafor et al.. (1996a), and Ejiofor and Okafor (1997). These products include jams, jellies and juice from Irvingiagabonensis. Chrysophyllumalbidum non-alcohol based drinks in the powdered fruits of Treculiaafricana. health drinks from seed of Garciniakola and calyx of Hibiscussabdariffa and seasoning from seed of Piperguineensis. Monodoramyristica. Xylopia spp. etc. Medicinal formulations from plant parts include balm for joint disease using leaves of Cassiatora. as well as an anti-malaria tea using Morindalucida. Azadirachtaindica. Caricapapaya and Cymbopogoncitratus. Medicated herbal soaps can be created with leaves of numerous species for example Aloevera. Cassiaalata. Azadirachtaindica and Lonchocarpuscyanescens. The commercial exploitation of those species leads to elevated revenues and healthcare benefits. The need for these items has implications for development potential and the requirement for large-scale conservation from the species which they’re based.

Training in the projects

The way forward for NWFP research, development and utilization in Southeastern Nigeria along with other tropical regions, could be favourably impacted by the training learned in the research outlined above. They are summarised the following:

· There’s great possibility of the commercial exploitation of dietary and medicinal purposes of bio-diversity, therefore justifying their massive development and conservation.

· Local participation is greatly enhanced when the objectives from the project are tailored for the requirements and priorities from the residents who themselves have a lot of indigenous understanding of the socio-economic setting.

· The availability of numerous inputs and conservation education is essential to advertise the conservation and sustainable usage of indigenous species in rural communities.

· Financial support along with other incentives are needed to stimulate and sustain conservation interest among residents.

· You will find prospects for employment possibilities through the introduction of nursery procedures among participating maqui berry farmers as well as their families.

· Maqui berry farmers can prioritize their production constraints, including insufficient cash, work, land, planting materials, and improved propagation methods.

· Plant propagation techniques are helpful for exsitu conservation of forest and derived savanna species home based gardens and distant farms. This might combat the unsustainable exploitation of untamed sources because of large calls for food and medicinal materials.

Recommended plan of action

Cellular the tremendous need for food and medicinal plants and also the attendant lack of bio-diversity because of deforestation and population pressure, the conservation needs/problems identified over these studies for example use of natural forest/woodland, the growing impossibility of procurement of plant samples and the requirement for a coherant conservation awareness campaign, have to be addressed on the continuous basis. Prioritized recommendations for the elevated utilization of medicinal and food plants within the rural economy from the local populace ought to be coded in consonance using the perceptions of residents, in the individual, community, municipality, condition, national, and also at worldwide levels (Okafor, 1998). Types of such suggestions include:

· Training and knowledge discussing

· Organising and financing awareness campaigns through workshops involving community leaders

· Organising enlightenment campaigns to create awareness around the economic and environmental need for medicinal and food plants

· The enaction of by-laws and regulations for defense and conservation from the flora from plant burning and indiscriminate clearing

· The support of conservation initiatives of local neighborhoods e.g. fetish groves (Okafor and Ladipo, 1994)

· The development of village conservation committees

· The supply of support to local and national herbaria for documentation from the national flora

· The facilitation of coaching of requisite personnel for taxonomic, environmental and ethnobotanical inventories and studies, of forests and woodlands, to be able to assess and demonstrate their conservation and socio-economic values.

Figure 1. Rattan drying (Photo: T. Sunderland).

8. Conclusions and suggestions

Involving local maqui berry farmers within the conservation and look at using NWFPs continues to be proven to become a viable technique for research, development and enhancement from the utilization potential of indigenous woodsy species in Southeastern Nigeria. The work has proven that there’s a sudden requirement for elevated applied research answering the requirements, possibilities and constraints really faced by maqui berry farmers themselves. These efforts should concentrate on assisting to identify altering demands and emerging novel items that maqui berry farmers could exploit. The potential for most of the selected species for agroforestry systems ought to be further explored for elevated sustainable production and ecological protection (Okafor, 1989, 1990b, 1992 Shepherd and Okafor, 1991).


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