Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (September 21, 1853 – Feb 21, 1926) would be a Nederlander physicist. Onnes’ scientific career was spent exploring very cold refrigeration techniques and also the connected phenomena.
Early many professorship
Onnes was created in Groningen, Netherlands. His father, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, was the brickworks owner. His mother was Anna Gerdina Coers of Arnhem.
In 1870, Onnes attended the College of Groningen. Onnes studied under Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in the College of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Onnes, again at Groningen, acquired his masters in 1878 along with a doctor’s degree in 1879. His thesis was Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde (tr. New proofs from the rotation of the world).
From 1882 to 1923 he offered as professor of experimental physics in the College of Leiden. In 1904, Onnes founded a really large cryogenics lab and asked other researchers towards the location. Onnes being locked in high reguard through the scientific community was due to this institution. In 1908 Onnes was the very first physicist who chose to make this liquefaction of helium possible (using cryostats). Onnes managed, while using Joule-Thomson effect, to reduce the high temperature to under one degree above the very least (.9 K). At that time it was undoubtedly the very coldest put on earth.
Onnes conducted (in 1911) electrical analysis of pure metals (mercury, tin and lead) at really low temperatures. Some, for example William Thomson, thought that electrons flowing via a conductor will come to some complete halt. Others, including Onnes, felt that the conductors electrical resistance would continuously decrease and drop to nil. At 4.2 kelvins the resistance was zero.
Onnes mentioned the Mercury has transpired right into a new condition, which due to its remarkable electrical qualities might be known as the superconductive condition. Onnes printed more articles concerning the phenomena. Initially, Onnes chosen over call the phenomena supraconductivity and, only later, adopted the word superconductivity.
Among his later achievements was winning the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for (within the words from the committee) his investigations around the qualities of matter at low temperatures which brought, inter alia, to producing liquid helium. (Inter alia means amongst other things.)
Dying and later on
He died in Leiden. The instruments Onnes devised for his experiments can nonetheless be seen in the Boerhaave museum in Leiden. His student and successor as director from the lab Willem Hendrik Keesom was the very first individual who could solidify helium, in 1926.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde. Ph.D. dissertation. Groningen, Netherlands, 1879.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, Algemeene theorie der vloeistoffen. Amsterdam Akad. Verhandl. 21, 1881.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, Around the Cryogenic Laboratory at Leyden as well as on producing Really Low Temperature. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden 14, 1894.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, Théorie générale de l’état fluide. Haarlem Arch. Neerl. 30, 1896.
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, The Superconductivity of Mercury. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, Nos. 122 and 124, 1911
- Onnes, H. Kamerlingh, Around the Cheapest Temperature Yet Acquired. Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden, No. 159, 1922.
- Timeline of low-temperature technology
- Timeline of states of matter and phase transitions
- Very coldest temperature achieved on the planet
- Good reputation for superconductivity
- Levelt-Sengers, J. M. H. How fluids unmix. breakthroughs through the School of Van der Waals and Kamerlingh Onnes. Amsterdam, Koninklijke Nerlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2002. ISBN 9069843579
- Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh, (Gavroglou, Kōstas. [erectile dysfunction.], and Goudaroulis, Yorgos [erectile dysfunction.]) Through measurement to understanding. the chosen papers of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926). Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1991. Goudaroulis, Yorgos. ISBN 0792308255
- Worldwide Institute of Refrigeration (First Worldwide Commission), Rapports et communications issus du Laboratoire Kamerlingh Onnes. Worldwide Congress of Refrigeration (seventh 1936 La Hauge), Amsterdam, 1936.
Links and references