Supervisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Lik Meng
The research would be to investigate, describe, model, analysis, and demonstrate how GIS and three-dimensional spatial modelling and analysis increases the micro demographic data analysis within the planning process, where demographic information and spatial analysis are strongly interrelated i.e. how effectively the accessible record spatial analysis and GIS spatial analysis methods could be combined and to make a group of techniques (or tools) that enables you to interpret, identify, visualise, and discriminate between different demographic three-dimensional surface forms.
Some time ago, spatial analytical methods comprised mainly of record and mathematical modelling, however nowadays include an array of techniques, including geographic human resources. As technology for spatial data capture has become available and demographic data have become offered at finer spatial detail. It is vital that develop capability to extract significant results/information making helpful decisions to help keep pace using the rise in we’ve got the technology. We have to become better outfitted to release the strength of GIS technology for testing and developing theories, identifying important processes, finding significant patterns, making more effective visualizations of information, as well as for making important societal decisions thus spatial analysis the bridge that links demographic data models to GIS technology.
Record analysis can provide outcomes of analysis or monitoring say population has elevated. But there remains some questions unanswered like where’s the rise location, by which direction may be the increase moving, by which nature may be the increase, what amount of the increase, what pattern exists within the increase, what spatial-temporal pattern exit, visual display from the increase, what spatial relationship exist between this increase and also the age, sex, ethnic groups, etc.
This research will are designed for investigating possible alternative methods to such unanswered questions using demographic record spatial analysis methods and GIS spatial analysis techniques to assistance with planning process and decision-making. Considering that traditional population analysis in planning has a tendency to disregard the demographic spatial dimension and when covered limited to aggregate level as well as highlighted by Bohnet (1995) and Gerland Patrick, (1996) that unlike physical data demographic data meant to explain or manage the conduct of people or groups, the positioning and also the limitations of demographic phenomena can’t be directly determined through observation or measurements, the phenomena are associated with people as well as their activities therefore, their distribution over space is frequently very uneven and heterogeneous, which phenomena aren’t permanent but transient.
Ideas/ Inquiries to be addressed
The primary contention within this scientific studies are Demographic spatial analysis and modelling in Geographical information system for planning process, i.e. using GIS to provide planner(s) capability to model, evaluate, use Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) to look at the distribution and visualise spatial change of demographic characteristics on the pc desktop to considerably improve her/his capability to assimilate information, possibility to boost the planning process as well as help communicate ideas and developments towards the public in particular.
This research continues to be initiated according to my observations that demographic spatial data analysis isn’t fully well integrated, considered, and utilised in to the planning analysis process mainly because of problems of aggregated demographic analysis so that as population data unlike physical data (infrastructure, land cover and land use) possess some qualities making it hard to deal because they are meant to explain or manage the conduct of people or groups, the positioning and also the limitations of demographic phenomena can’t be directly determined through observation or measurements, the phenomena are associated with people as well as their activities therefore, their distribution over space is frequently very uneven and heterogeneous, which phenomena aren’t permanent but transient (Bohnet, 1995 and Gerland, 1996). Also due to the very heterogeneous causes of population data, a number of integration problems can happen: Missing positional information, Sporadic classifications and methodologies, Different spatial units, Different amounts of aggregation.
However, in planning tasks, use of details about the spatial location of individuals is a vast amount of planning actions are attracted basing on demographic data, but many of demographic analysis is transported out using record techniques not implementing physical location aspect into account, which makes it hard for spatial analysis in GIS which information is symbolized in aggregated and aspatial perspective i.e. data for individual people and households are aggregated and along the way details are lost, or hidden or facts are hard to extract, in being not able to see and analysis the outcomes spatially.
The primary reason being Demographic data (population counts) are conventionally mapped by areal units of irregular size and shape although details about human population is usually collected at individual level, but aggregated based on census zones or any other administrative limitations. Using such irregular areal units presents many damage to geographical analysis, particularly where you should represent underlying patterns of demographic variables in population density. It’s well understood that values connected with your zones is going to be essentially based on the (frequently arbitrary) location of zone limitations, which choropleth (shaded area) maps created from such data might be visually misleading, the tiniest populations frequently being symbolized through the largest areas into the spotlight (Openshaw, (1984) around the modifiable areal unit problem, and Dorling (1993) around the cartographic representation of area census data), which brought to population surface analysis and modelling as a way to in excess of come the issue.
The concept that population can most appropriately be mapped and modelled like a surface isn’t new, Schmid and MacCannell (1955) discussed the making of contour-based maps of population density, while Nordbeck and Rystedt (1970) shown that population density may very well be a persistantly different reference interval surface. Tobler (1979) presented a technique for pycnophylactic (volume-preserving) interpolation of values from irregular zones into surface form, and Goodchild et al. (1993) review numerous methods to areal interpolation, noting the process may very well be relating to the estimation of the underlying population surface other developments are by Martin and Bracken (1991), using the latest developments being population geocoding using grid by Martin (1999).
All handle population surfaces by thinking about something for any point to be representative for total to have an area (or ratio according to total). Another shorting coming is the fact that demographic variables are symbolized by two entities which is these which differentiate them for instance gender it either man or woman marital status is either single or married etc. when these entities are symbolized in GIS using the latest rise in GIS surface analysis and modelling, we’re able simply to show their spatial locations and extents although not their spatial quantities. However for a planner is definitely searching just how much and just how demographic characteristics vary as change from one location to another.
That’s further made more complicated because demographic quantities are needed at different degree of aggregation, thus the issue varies from representing micro demographic data to aggregated data. Take into consideration, which will come in play, may be the mixture of the top and also the quantities (volumetric) analysis and modelling
Considering the above mentioned and former discussions, it may be observed that the problem of demographic surface modelling and analysis while using true three-dimensional GIS analysis and modelling haven’t been centered on, also it provides hope of solving a few of the underlying shortcomings, this improves planning, but considering that no plan could be entirely comprehensive (Altshuler, 1995) because there are and will be elements-new aspects-not yet been made the decision upon making the item associated with a decision always limited, at minimum over time, even though the planner’s approach- i.e. his goal orientation- towards the object might be comprehensive. All of the above needs to be adopted through the task of mixing such techniques along with other planning models within the planning analysis and lastly before such integration could be transported the uncertainty or fuzziness needs to be determined, recorded and portrayed. Thus the emerging paradigm of 3D GIS micro Demographic spatial analysis and modelling, which directly leads us towards the thesis of the research, that is adopted by goals from the study.
The central theme (thesis) is the fact that disaggregated (micro) demographic spatial analysis for planning analysis is possible by GIS three-dimensional spatial modelling. The positioning adopted with this study leave the standard one where three-dimensional GIS can be used for terrain analysis and modelling and never fully applied to population studies except working for planners, decision makers, urban modellers, GIS users and GIS specialists for just two.5 dimensional population visualisation.
Objectives from the study
Approaching the problem in the disaggregate perspective, what earns the issue, could it be data collection techniques, storage, or around the techniques of modelling and analysis.
Leading to another question, whether you’ll be able to execute demographic spatial analysis at disaggregate level in 2D or 3D GIS. Which requirements to know the initial options that come with the demographic data modelling and analysis
To increase the abilities of current demographic data analysis and 3D GIS to enable them to be effectively employed for demographic analysis i.e. can you really use or adapt existing GIS functions to handle demographic analysis inside a 3D GIS system? To recognize existing ways of DEM and DTM surface modelling and characterisation and using scientific visualization approaches to the interpretation from the results.
To evaluate whether a 3 dimensional demographic model (3D-DM) contains helpful information for demographic characterisation, what benefits arise from this, and may any significant information be produced from 3D-DM
If the reply is yes then how will it be achieved, would be the outcomes of such modelling and analysis helpful for planning and making decisions purpose.
How will it be integrated within the planning analysis process at different scales and stages, in that way to build up analytical approaches and extensive understanding significant to planner in addition to policy and decision makers that support 3D-DM interpretation and knowledge extraction.
Thus, to make a group of techniques which may be utilized in a GIS atmosphere for 3-dimensional surface disaggregated demographic characterisation. As part of the investigations, a prototype package (a mix of techniques) is going to be implemented which enables the concepts to become tested and verified
In meeting these objectives, numerous ongoing styles become apparent they are outlined below within the methodology.
The approach of the study is GIS micro demographic spatial analysis and modelling starts by resolving the process of each one of the components via a critical overview of the literature, then your primary body that has been split into three components a) overview, b) approach, and c) application it ends having a conclusion giving the discussion and future work.
Demography and GIS in planning
The very first component (overview) is all about Demography and GIS in planning i.e. trying to make introducing GIS micro Demographic spatial analysis and modelling. Begin by searching in the ways of demographic record spatial analysis (DSSA) i.e. record spatial analysis means of demographic analysis, the techniques of geographical information system spatial analysis (GISSA) i.e. GIS spatial analysis methods being used, the variations and benefits of DSSA and GISSA, and population in planning. Start to research what demographic analysis using GIS requires how GISSA and DSSA may be used, combined or integrated to obtain geographical information system demographic spatial analysis (GISDSA), which will help to simplify and enhance demographic data analysis, get the best representation from the data and just how the outputs can be used for making decisions in planning process.
Data needs, available data sources and techniques of information collection, the factors and documentations that are required in Comprehensive Plan, development plans, structure plan, local plans (action plans, zonal plans, and subject plans).
Here consider Census Geocoding. among fundamental essentials techniques of address matching which works with the way in which population information is collected, primary focus for spatial analysis is based on building because the georeferenced spatial unit because it appears to supply a method to disaggregate demographic analysis which is easily coupled with other spatial analysis then proceed to spatial analysis like Neighbourhood analysis, Similarity analysis, Demographic spatial change, Demographic Segregation measures, Residential racial segregation against integration where compare Correlation in SPSS and Leads to ArcView GIS. Demographic sudden spatial change, and Correlation analysis,
After searching in the above consider the shorting introduction of 2D GIS demographic analysis, and a pair of.5D GIS Demographic analysis and modelling, I introduce the 3D GIS Demographic spatial analysis and modelling, that leads the component.
3D GIS Demographic surfaces
The 2nd component (approach) is all about Demography 3D GIS modelling, Demographic surface analysis and characterisation. Here the job would be to carry actual micro Demographic modelling using GIS and 3D, the derivation of parameters in the demographic surface as well as their interpretation. This is achieved by searching in the following sections:
I employ the strategy from terrain analysis and modelling (DEM and DTM) healthy of three-Dimensional Demographic Model (3D-DM) in demographic data interpretation, visualisation and analysis.
Techniques and issues are thought all around the characterisation of surface form symbolized by 3D Demographic Models (3D-DMs). Characterisation has three specific objectives, namely to recognize spatial pattern, to recognize scale dependency healthy, interpretation, and also to allow visualisation of results the entire aim being their applications (planning analysis).
An exam consists of the options of 3D-DMs based on demographic variables by identifying appropriate quantitative measures and visualisation processes which may be enabled inside a GIS. They are evaluated by different techniques of demographic surface generation such as the TIN and grid, and representation like same demographic variable e.g isolines and isosurfaces.
Before starting your detailed description from the nature of the work, its scope is determined by addressing numerous underlying questions.
What should a characterisation of census when it comes to surface make an effort to achieve?
The solution to this touches around the nature of scientific method. Can you really identify a goal reality, those of the real demographic characteristic surface? When we assume the solution to this is absolutely, then characterisation becomes the entire process of identifying the perfect categorisation of this reality in order to consider an alternate assumption where our imposition of the scientific framework becomes a reality. The plan we use to explain a demographic surface can seen by its consistency along with other scientific conventions in DEMs, its discriminating power with regards to the applications it’s orientated towards, and it is own internal consistency. This is actually the approach that’s taken in this study, in the phrase demographic surface as well as in the look at the various tools designed to describe it.
How should demographic surface be modelled?
To be able to give a somewhat objective plan for development and look at characterisation tools, first a summary of demographic surface terms is completed along with a very specific meaning of demographic surface is going to be used throughout this research. Define any demographic surface when it comes to its form (generation), what lies on there (appearance) and what it’s employed for (planning) which entail Interpretation, Visualization,
Analysis, and application demographic surface
3D-DM generation: studying demographic in the database, formation of relations one of the diverse observations (model construction)
3D-DM manipulation: modification and refinement of 3D-DMs, derivation of intermediate models
3D-DM interpretation: 3D-DM analysis, information extraction from 3D-DMs
3D-DM visualisation: graphical rendering of 3D-DMs and derived information and
3D-DM application: growth and development of appropriate application models for planning purposes. 3D-DM application in planning forms the context for 3D-Demographic modelling as each particular utilisation has its own specific functional needs relative to another demographic modelling tasks.
GIS Uncertainty and Integration
The 3rd component (application) handles the uncertainty within the modelled and derived parameter to make certain from the interpretations also it ends with integration from the model in planning analysis by searching at just how Demographic data analysis can be used in lots of planning functions, take a look at general administration, development control, plan making, and proper planning thinking about different scales and various stages of planning i.e. resolution of planning objectives, case study of existing situations, modelling and projection, growth and development of planning option, choice of planning options, plan implementation and evaluation, monitoring and feedback. Different functions, scales, and stages of planning need different demographic data analysis and input as well as make different utilization of GIS
To complete the objectives while using outlined methodology, I intend to use two kinds of data set: One at very micro level collected in the Heritage area, in Georgetown, Penang condition, Malaysia Another is population census data from Malaysia population and housing census office beginning using the 1991 census also intend to try other population data many techniques from different countries like from Uganda and USA.
The next is going to be used: ArcView to supply a gui (Graphical user interface) for direct interaction to see and edit geo-feature objects ArcView Avenue (Customization and Database Integration for ArcView) programming atmosphere, ArcView Spatial Analyst extension, plus a Microsoft Access (Relational database management system (RDBMS)), SPSS for record analysis.
Inside the School of Housing, Building, and planning there’s an info technology laboratory were use of internet is supplied and also the laboratory is equipment using the latest computers packed with GIS software like ArcView GIS and demonstration Versions of IDRISI for home windows and CartaLinx, other software for word processing and website design and browsing.
Uses and cost of Research
The contribution to understanding may be the out come of supplying real working techniques and tools healthy of 2D, 2.5D, and 3D GIS for disaggregated demographic spatial modelling and analysis.
It’s wished, this research a component from being guiding factor for demographic spatial data modelling and analysis t here is going to be four broad teams of finish-people that use the research products. First, the technical developments in spatial analysis functionality in terms of suggestions and operations is going to be distributed around the study community, which when they wish can incorporate in GIS software like add-ons to ArcView GIS when it comes to scripts and extensions
Second, you will see substantive findings associated with demographic spatial analysis and modelling, findings which will help the community of researchers involved in the society look for development and wellness of humanity.
Third, provide more eye opener from the contribution of 2D, 2.5D, and 3D GIS to humanity studies, which as Johnston (1999 pp. 45) remarks the continuity of private from spatial science into GIS has produced an obstacle to the realisation one of the social theorists.
Lastly an essential source of fields, designed to use demographic data as bases for resource allocation like planning, land surveying while land partition This can be and it is using the least developments in Malaysia i.e. Electronic Planning Submission System (Jebasingam, 2000) tools to holistic spatial planning (Nasruddin, 2000) Electronic government planning today and tomorrow (Anuar, 2000) and native Authority Networked Development Approval System (Lee, et al, 2000)
All such as the substantive and technical work is going to be explained for publication so that as Internet resource on Universal resource locator (URL) world wide web.hbp.usm.my/thesis/HeritageGIS
References and Expertise
You has guaranteed use of expertise in regards to the planning and GIS, out of the box constant connection with Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lee Lik Meng of Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang Town planning department, and also the Penang condition planning office. For technical work inside the School of Housing, Building, and planning there’s an info technology laboratory with three full-time assistants prepared to discus any risk plus they experts in computer and using different software programs.
The applicants appearance within the following discussion group and lists: Urban and regional planning, ArcView GIS, 3D subscriber list, and Demography discussion list, ESRI Virtual Campus about GIS, yet others will make sure quick problem-solving and use of developments within the different fields within the research.
The references getting used include Books and periodicals, software applications packages, and also the Websites about GIS, planning, demography and population that are constantly updated and being located on School of Housing, Building, and planning site under thesis section world wide web.hbp.usm.my/thesis/heritageGIS