Home » Proposal » Square wave voltammetry thesis proposal

Square wave voltammetry thesis proposal

Square wave voltammetry thesis proposal 104 CrossRef    
   Zhong WY, Zhang

First Online: 26 September 2013 Received: 27 June 2013 Recognized: 11 September 2013

Cite this short article as: Li, Y. Sun, G. Zhang, Y. et al. Microchim Acta (2014) 181: 751. doi:10.1007/s00604-013-1082-8

  • 6 Citations


Single-walled bismuth nanotubes (sw-BiNTs) were self-put together with octa(3-aminopropyl) silsesquioxane like a framework and also to govern morphology. Deposited on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE), the sw-BiNTs were utilised for that synchronised analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square wave stripping voltammetry. The sw-BiNTs were made by (a) coordination interaction between your amino categories of the silsesquioxane and also the Bi(III) ions, by (b) reduction with sodium borohydride. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed single-walled tubular structures with diameters of

4–6 nm, with lengths of countless hundreds nanometers. GCEs modified with your sw-BiNTs perform a lot better than bare GCEs in stripping analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II). The results of adsorption volume of sw-BiNTs, solution pH, pulse amplitude, and pulse width were enhanced. The modified electrode ended up being employed for case study of Pb(II) and Cd(II) inside a straight line response vary from .four to six M having a sensitivity of four.692 A M one and three.835 A M 1. and recognition limits of just one nM and 5 nM, correspondingly. The technique was effectively put on case study of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in toy leachates, and also the outcome was in good agreement with individuals acquired with atomic absorption spectrometry. Sensitivity and recognition limits were in contrast to other voltammetric methods, and also the sw-BiNTs are considered to become a beautiful alternative for practical applications.

Square wave voltammetry thesis proposal boron-doped

Additional features from the electrode include low costs, a properly reproducible nanostructure, and easy scale-from the fabrication process.

Single-walled bismuth nanotubes (BiNTs) were self-assemblied with octa(3-aminopropyl) silsesquioxane as framework and morphology control agent for that synchronised recognition of trace Pb(II) and Cd(II) by square wave stripping voltammetry. The proposal preparation avoids time-consuming pre-treatment and experienced operation. The sensitivity and recognition limit from the method was similar to reported voltammetric methods, and BiNTs may be an alternate candidate for practical applying electrochemical recognition.

Bismuth nanoNTs according to set up of silsesquioxane for sensing of trace lead and cadmium by stripping voltammetry


Bismuth nanotubes Silsesquioxane Lead Cadmium Stripping voltammetry

Electronic extra material

The internet version want to know , (doi: 10.1007/s00604-013-1082-8 ) contains extra material, that is open to approved users.

Extra material

ESM 1 Reagents and chemicals, apparatus, reactivation of sw-BiNTsGCE, information on TEM and EDS of sw-BiNTsGCE, optimization of experimental variables and also the recognition limits for analysis of Pb(II) and Cd(II) at sw-BiNTsGCE were incorporated. Such data is going to be available online. (DOC 873 kb)


Kemper T, Sommer S (2002) Estimate of heavy metal and rock contamination in soils following a mining accident using reflectance spectroscopy.

Square wave voltammetry thesis proposal Lead Cadmium Stripping

Environ Sci Technol 36(12):2742–2747 CrossRef

Darwish IA, Blake DA (2001) Development and validation of the one-step immunoassay for resolution of cadmium in human serum. Rectal Chem 74(1):52–58 CrossRef

Guzsvany V, Nakajima H, Soh N, Nakano K, Svancara I, Vytras K, Bjelica L, Imato T (2011) Anodic stripping voltammetry coupled with consecutive injection analysis for measurements of trace metal ions with bismuth- and antimony film electrodes under comparable conditions. Electroanal 23(7):1593–1601 CrossRef

Wang J (2005) Stripping analysis at bismuth electrodes: an evaluation. Electroanal 17(15–16):1341–1346 CrossRef

Economou A (2005) Bismuth-film electrodes: recent developments and potentialities for electroanalysis. TracTrend Rectal Chem 24(4):334–340 CrossRef

Mirceski V, Hocevar Senate bill, Ogorevc B, Gulaboski R, Drangov I (2012) Diagnostics of anodic stripping mechanisms under square-wave voltammetry conditions using bismuth film substrates. Rectal Chem 84(10):4429–4436 CrossRef

Zong P, Nagaosa Y (2009) Resolution of antimony(III) and (V) in natural water by cathodic stripping voltammetry within-situ plated bismuth film electrode. Microchim Acta 166(1–2):139–144 CrossRef

Kruusma J, Banks C, Compton R (2004) Mercury-free sono-electroanalytical recognition of lead in human bloodstream by utilization of bismuth-film-modified boron-doped gemstone electrodes. Rectal Bioanal Chem 379(4):700–706 CrossRef

Baldrianova L, Svancara I, Sotiropoulos S (2007) Anodic stripping voltammetry in a new kind of disposable bismuth-plated carbon paste small-electrodes. Rectal Chim Acta 599(2):249–255 CrossRef

Wang J, Tian B (1993) Mercury-free disposable lead sensors according to potentiometric stripping analysis of gold-coated screen-printed electrodes. Rectal Chem 65(11):1529–1532 CrossRef

Krolicka A, Bobrowski A (2004) Bismuth film electrode for adsorptive stripping voltammetry – electrochemical and microscopic study. Electrochem Commun 6(2):99–104 CrossRef

Zhong WY, Zhang C, Gao Q, Li H (2012) Highly sensitive recognition of lead(II) ion using multicolor CdTe quantum dots. Microchim Acta 176(1–2):101–107 CrossRef

Qi L, Shang Y, Wu FY (2012) Colorimetric recognition of lead (II) according to silver nanoparticles capped with iminodiacetic acidity. Microchim Acta 178(1–2):221–227 CrossRef

Murray RW (2008) Nanoelectrochemistry: metal nanoparticles, nanoelectrodes, and nanopores. Chem Rev 108(7):2688–2720 CrossRef

Guo S, Dong S (2009) Biomolecule-nanoparticle hybrids for electrochemical biosensors. TracTrend Rectal Chem 28(1):96–109 CrossRef

Wang F, Wang JL, Chen HJ, Dong SJ (2007) Set up procedure for CuHCF/MPA multilayers on gold nanoparticles modified electrode and portrayal by electrochemical SPR. J Electroanal Chem 600(2):265–274 CrossRef

Dai PP, Yang ZS (2012) Sensor for lead(II) ion with different glassy carbon electrode modified with double-stranded DNA and ferric oxide nanoparticles. Microchim Acta 176(1–2):109–115 CrossRef

Yang FY, Liu K, Hong K, Reich DH, Searson PC, Chien CL (1999) Large magnetoresistance of electrodeposited single-very bismuth thin films. Science 284(5418):1335–1337 CrossRef

Behnia K, Balicas L, Kopelevich Y (2007) Signatures of electron fractionalization in ultraquantum bismuth. Science 317(5845):1729–1731 CrossRef

Li YD, Wang JW, Deng ZX, Wu YY, Sun XM, Yu DP, Yang PD (2001) Bismuth nanotubes: a rational low-temperature synthetic route. J Am Chem Soc 123(40):9904–9905 CrossRef

Boldt R, Kaiser M, Khler D, Krumeich F, Ruck M (2009) High-yield synthesis and structure of double-walled bismuth-nanotubes. Nano Lett 10(1):208–210 CrossRef

Liu XY, Zeng JH, Zhang SY, Zheng RB, Liu XM, Qian YT (2003) Novel bismuth nanotube arrays synthesized by solvothermal method. Chem Phys Lett 374(3–4):348–352 CrossRef

Li L, Yang YW, Huang XH, Li GH, Ang R, Zhang LD (2006) Fabrication and electronic transport qualities of Bi nanotube arrays. Appl Phys Lett 88(10):103119(1–3)

Kharissova OV, Osorio M, Garza M, Kharisov BI (2008) Study of bismuth nanoparticles and nanotubes acquired by microwave heating. Synth React Inorg, Met-Org, Nano-Met Chem 38(7):567–572

Wang XQ, Naka K, Zhu MF, Kuroda H, Itoh H, Chujo Y (2007) Self-organized multilayer films and porous nanocomposites of gold nanoparticles with octa(3-aminopropyl)octasilsesquioxane. J Inorg Organomet P 17(2):447–457 CrossRef

Letant SE, Maiti A, Johnson TV, Herberg JL, Maxwell RS, Saab AP (2009) Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)-stabilized Pd nanoparticles: factors governing crystallite morphology and secondary aggregate structure. J Phys Chem C 113(45):19424–19431 CrossRef

He XH, Chen L, Xie X, Su ZH, Qin C, Liu Y, Ma M, Yao SZ, Deng L, Xie QJ, Tian Y, Qin DL, Luo YP (2012) Square wave anodic stripping voltammetric resolution of lead(II) utilizing a glassy carbon electrode modified having a lead ionophore and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Microchim Acta 176(1–2):81–89 CrossRef

Yang BJ, Li C, Hu HM, Yang XG, Li QW, Qian YT (2003) An area-temperature path to bismuth nanotube arrays. Eur J Inorg Chem 20:3699–3702 CrossRef

Hoyer B, Florence TM, Batley GE (1987) Use of polymer-coated glassy carbon electrodes in anodic stripping voltammetry. Rectal Chem 59(13):1608–1614 CrossRef

Kefala G, Economou A, Voulgaropoulos A (2004) Research of Nafion-coated bismuth-film electrodes for that resolution of trace metals by anodic stripping voltammetry. Analyst 129(11):1082–1090 CrossRef

Rehacek V, Hotovy I, Vojs M, Kups T, Spiess L (2012) Nafion-coated bismuth film electrodes on pyrolyzed photoresist/alumina supports for analysis of trace chemical toxins. Electrochim Acta 63:192–196 CrossRef

Wang J, Lu JM, Hocevar Senate bill, Farias PAM, Ogorevc B (2000) Bismuth-coated carbon electrodes for anodic stripping voltammetry. Rectal Chem 72(14):3218–3222 CrossRef

Lee GJ, Lee HM, Rhee CK (2007) Bismuth nano-powder electrode for trace analysis of chemical toxins using anodic stripping voltammetry. Electrochem Commun 9(10):2514–2518 CrossRef

Hwang GH, Han WK, Park JS, Kang SG (2008) Resolution of trace metals by anodic stripping voltammetry utilizing a bismuth-modified carbon nanotube electrode. Talanta 76(2):301–308 CrossRef

Xu H, Zeng LP, Xing SJ, Xian YZ, Shi GY (2008) Ultrasensitive voltammetric recognition of trace lead(II) and cadmium(II) using MWCNTs-Nafion/bismuth composite electrodes. Electroanal 20(24):2655–2662 CrossRef

Lance armstrong KC, Tatum CE, Dansby-Sparks RN, Chambers JQ, Xue ZL (2010) Individual and synchronised resolution of lead, cadmium, and zinc by anodic stripping voltammetry in a bismuth bulk electrode. Talanta 82(2):675–680 CrossRef

Marinho JZ, Silva RAB, Barbosa TGG, Richter EM, Munoz RAA, Lima RC (2013) Graphite-composite electrodes bulk-modified with (BiO)2CO3 and Bi2O3 plates-like nanostructures for trace metal determination by anodic stripping voltammetry. Electroanal 25(3):765–770 CrossRef

Hocevar Senate bill, Svancara I, Vytras K, Ogorevc B (2005) Novel electrode for electrochemical stripping analysis according to carbon paste modified with bismuth powder. Electrochim Acta 51(4):706–710 CrossRef


Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yusong Li
    • 2
  • Guangqiang Sun
    • 1
  • Yuehua Zhang
    • 1
  • Cunwang Ge
    • 1

    Email author

  • Ning Bao
    • 3
  • Yihong Wang
    • 2

    Email author

  1. 1. School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Nantong College Nantong People’s Republic of China
  2. 2. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Southeast College Nanjing People’s Republic of China
  3. 3. School of Public Health Nantong College Nantong People’s Republic of China

Relating to this article

Print ISSN

Share this:
custom writing low cost
Order custom writing