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Pap smear in pregnancy dissertation writing

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Because the 1960s, cervical screening continues to be readily available for Australian women however the organized method of cervical screening only commenced at 1991. There’s been a stop by incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer because the 1960s when cervical screening was introduced. From 1991 onwards, there’s a ongoing dramatic fall within the incidence of carcinoma from the cervix and mortality out of this disease. Thus, this evidence strongly proves that Pap smear is an efficient screening tool which could lessen the mortality rates by diagnosing cervical cancer early. (14)

Similar successes will also be noticed in The Scandinavian countries, namely Iceland, Denmark and Norwegian.

Pap smear in pregnancy dissertation writing cervical cancer

In Iceland in which the program covered most extensively, 80% of reduction in mortality rates was observed between 1965 and 1982, which makes it the nation with finest reduction in mortality rates. In Denmark and Norwegian in which the screening program covered 40% and 25% of people correspondingly, the mortality rates decreased by 25% in Denmark and 10% in Norwegian.

In Canada, Uk (United kingdom), other Countries in europe and Nz, the development of organized population screening brought to some marked reduction in the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. To have an example, the incidence and mortality decreased by about 50 % whenever a national call-recall system introduced within the United kingdom in 1988. Quite simply, the incidence of invasive cervical cancer dropped from 14-16 per 100,000 women in 1971 to 10 per 100,000 in 1995 and also to eight per 100,000 women in 2005. Quantity of deaths from cervical cancer also decreased from 2000 in 1988 to 921 in the year 2006.

Generally, the participation of the lady aged between 35 and 64 within the United kingdom cervical screening program reduces her cervical cancer risk later on 5 years by 60-80%. The chance of advanced cancer is reduced by roughly 90%. (15)


One economical issue which i experienced while performing these studies would be that the women in developing countries have greater rates of cervical cancer but they are missing out on screening programs causing 80% to 85% of deaths brought on by cervical cancer occurring in developing countries. (16)

Pap smear in pregnancy dissertation writing All answers

Fig. 6 (world wide web.rho.org/about-cervical-cancer.htm), downloaded 3 June 2010

Barriers to screening in developing countries include limited human sources, finance sources and poorly developed healthcare services.

Malawi with a cervical cancer incidence rate of 47 per 10,000 women, has one pathologist, one colposcope with no cytotechnicians. (world wide web.who.int/immunization/sage/Dennycervical_cancer.pdf), downloaded 15 June 2010

The governments need to financially independent to cervical screening to folks. Hopefully worldwide community will help to developing countries to setup own screening program.

For me, a social concern is also implicated here: understanding of cervical cancer is less among women in developing countries because of insufficient education.

In 1996, Pap smear coverage in Malaysia that is a developing country is considered to be just 26% based on the National Health insurance and Morbidity Survey II. (smj.sma.org.sg/5001/5001a6.pdf), downloaded 2 August 2010

This implies that understanding of the significance of regular screening continues to be below acceptable level in developing countries. (18) This lack of knowledge might be related to low-level of your practice and fewer contact with fundamental medical information. Possible methods to increase awareness among women include reaching women through local women’s or community groups. (19) The society must also be educated to handle the mindsets of some ladies who feel shy to complete Pap smear test.

Benefits and Risks

For me, Pap smear is advantageous just like identify cancerous or precancerous conditions from the cervix. (20) Generally, the exam does identify minor cellular abnormalities before individuals cells have experienced an opportunity to turn cancerous and at that time in which the condition is most easily treatable. Apart from that, it’s easy, quick, and comparatively painless. Pap smear cannot identify other kinds of cancer for example individuals from the ovary, vagina or uterus but cancer of individuals organs can be found during pelvic exam that is conducted simultaneously as Pap smear. (10)

No test is ideal, the same is true the Pap smear test. Its specificity meaning it capability to differentiate normal smear and abnormal is recognized as excellent but it’s not perfect. The same thing goes to the sensitivity meaning being able to identify each and every cancerous cell. Thus, false negative results (existence of abnormalities aren’t detected through the test) will occur, leading to couple of women developing cervical cancer despite being screened regularly using Pap smear. (10, 16) Therefore, patients ought to make repeat screening as single screening leads to high rate of false-negatives.

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