At the end of all pieces of academic writing, you need a list of materials that you have used or referred to. This usually has a heading: references but may be bibliography or works cited depending on the conventions of the system you use.
The object of your writing is for you to say something for yourself using the ideas of the subject, for you to present ideas you have learned in your own way. The emphasis should be on working with other people’s ideas, rather than reproducing their words. The ideas and people that you refer to need to be made explicit by a system of referencing. This consists of a list of materials that you have used at the end of the piece of writing and references to this list at various points throughout the essay. The purpose of this is to supply the information needed to allow a user to find a source.
Therefore, at the end of your assignment you need a list of the materials you have used – a bibliography or a reference list.
There are many ways of writing a list of references – check with your department for specific information.
- The most common system is called the Harvard system. There is no definitive version of the Harvard system and most universities have their own. But the one used here – the American Psychological Association style – is well known and often used (American Psychological Association, 1983, 1994, 1999, 2001, 2010).
- Click here or see Gibaldi (2003) and Modern Languages Association (1998, 2009) for another way.
- Many scientists use a numerical system, often called the Vancouver style or BS 1629. Click here or see International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (1991) for more information.
A good overview can be found in Pears Shields (2008).
Abercrombie, D. (1968). Paralanguage. British Journal of Disorders ofCommunication, 3, 55-59. Barr, P. Clegg, J. Wallace, C. (1981). Advanced reading skills. London: Longman. Chomsky, N. (1973). Linguistic theory. In J. W. Oller J. C. Richards (Eds.), Focus on the learner (pp. 29-35). Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House. Fromkin, V. Rodman, R. (1983). An introduction to language. London: Holt-Saunders. Guiora, A. Z. Paluszny, M. Beit-Hallahmi, B. Catford, J. C. Cooley, R. E. Dull, C. Y. (1975). Language and person: Studies in language behaviour. Language Learning, 25. 43-61. GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from cc.gatech.edu/gvu/usersurveys/survey1997-10/ Kinsella, V. (Ed.). (1978). Language teaching and linguistics: Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lipinsky, E. Bender, R. (1980). Critical voices on the economy. Survey, 25, 38-42. Oller, J. W. Richards, J. C. (Eds.). (1973). Focus on the learner. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House. Longman dictionary of contemporary English. (1978). London: Longman. Smith, F. (1978). Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stern, H. H. Weinrib, A. (1978). Foreign languages for younger children: Trends and assessment. In V. Kinsella (Ed.), Language teaching and linguistics: Surveys (pp. 152-172). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Use heading: References.
Page numbers should be included for all articles in journals and in collections.
Use italics (or underlining in handwriting) for titles of books, periodicals, newspapers etc.
Use alphabetical order. Alphabetise works with no author by the first significant word in the title.
All co-authors should be listed.
Indent second etc. lines
Use (n.d.) if no date is given.
If the author of a document is not given, begin the reference with the title of the document.
Smith, F. (1978). Reading. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fromkin, V. Rodman, R. (1983). An introduction to language. London: Holt-Saunders.
Barr, P. Clegg, J. Wallace, C. (1981). Advanced reading skills. London: Longman.
Kinsella, V. (Ed.). (1978). Language teaching and linguistics: Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Oller, J. W. Richards, J. C. (Eds.). (1973). Focus on the learner. Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.
British Council Teaching Information Centre. (1978). Pre-sessional courses for overseas students. London: British Council.
Longman dictionary of contemporary English. (1978). London: Longman. The Times atlas of the world (5th ed.). (1975). New York: New York Times.
Fromkin, V. Rodman, R. (1983). An introduction to language (3rd ed.). London: Holt-Saunders.
Cohen, J. (1977). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (rev. ed.). New York: Plenum Press.
Piaget, J. Inhelder, B. (1951). La genése de l’idée de hasard chez l’enfant [The origin of the idea of danger in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Luria, A. R. (1969). The mind of a mnemonist (L. Solotaroff, Trans.). New York: Avon Books. (Original work published 1965)
Lyons, J. (1981a). Language and linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lyons, J. (1981b). Language, meaning and context. London: Fontana.
3. Periodical articles
Abercrombie, D. (1968). Paralanguage. British Journal of Disorders ofCommunication, 3, 55-59.
Lipinsky, E. Bender, R. (1980). Critical voices on the economy. Survey, 25, 38-42.
Guiora, A. Z. Paluszny, M. Beit-Hallahmi, B. Catford, J. C. Cooley, R. E. Dull, C. Y. (1975). Language and person: Studies in language behaviour. Language Learning, 25. 43-61.
Carmody, T. P. (1982). A new look at medicine from a social perspective [Review of the book Social contexts of health, illness and patient care. by E. G. Mishler, L. R. Amarasingham, S. D. Osherson, S. T. Hauser, N. E. Waxler R. Liem]. Contemporary Psychology, 27. 208-209.
Maley, A. (1994). [Review of the book Critical language awareness. by N. Fairclough]. Applied Linguistics, 15. 348-350.
Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today. 70-76.
James, R. (1991, December 15). Obesity affects economic social status. The Guardian, p. 18
Acid attack ‘;scarred girl for life’. (1986, October 21). The Guardian. p. 4. (In the essay use a short form of the title for citation: (“Acid Attack.” 1986))
Hain, P. (1986, October 21). The police protection that women want [Letter to the editor]. The Guardian, p. 4.
Johns, A. M. (in press) Written argumentation for real audiences. TESOL Quarterly.
4. Selections from edited collections
Chomsky, N. (1973). Linguistic theory. In J. W. Oller J. C. Richards (Eds.), Focus on the learner (pp. 29-35). Rowley, Massachusetts: Newbury House.
Stern, H. H. Weinrib, A. (1978). Foreign languages for younger children: Trends and assessment. In V. Kinsella (Ed.), Language teaching and linguistics: Surveys (pp. 152-172). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wadeson, H. (2001). An eclectic approach to art therapy. In J. A. Rubin (Ed.), Approaches to art therapy: Theory and technique (2nd ed. pp. 306-318). New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
5. CD ROMs etc
Gardner, H. (1981, December). Do babies sing a universal song? Psychology Today [CD-ROM], pp. 70-76.
Meyer, A. S. Bock, K. (1992). The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon: Blocking or partial activation? [CD-ROM]. Memory Cognition, 20, 715-726. Abstract from: SilverPlatter File: PsycLIT Item: 80-16351
Crime. (1996). In Microsoft Encarta 1996 Encyclopedia [CD-ROM]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation.
Oxford English dictionary computer file: On compact disc (2nd ed.) [CD-ROM]. (1992). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
6. Documents obtained from the Internet
All references begin with the same information that would be provided for a printed source (or as much of that information as possible). The WWW information is then placed at the end of the reference in the same way as publishing information is given for books. It is not necessary to give the date of retrieval unless the document on the Web may change in content – e.g. a wiki – move, or be removed from a site altogether.
The object of this is the same as all referencing – to supply the information needed to allow a user to find a source. If you do not know the author or the date and it does not have a clear title, think carefully before using it. See Evaluating Sources .
Jacobson, J. W. Mulick, J. A. Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and antiscience: Science working group on facilitated communication. American Psychologist, 50, 750-765. Retrieved from apa.org/journals/jacobson.html
Sleek, S. (1996, January). Psychologists build a culture of peace. The New York Times, pp. 1, 33 Retrieved from nytimes.com
Li, X. Crane, N. (1996, May 20). Bibliographic formats for citing electronic information. Retrieved from uvm.edu/
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (1995, May 15). About the World Wide Web. Retrieved from w3.org/hypertext/WWW/
American Psychological Association (1996). How to cite information from the world wide web. Retrieved from apa.org/journals/webref.html
A field guide to sources on, about and on the Internet: Citation formats. (1995, Dec 18). Retrieved from cc.emory.edu/WHSCL/citation.formats.html
WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved from wast.ac.uk/usersurveys/survey2000-10/
Rosenthal, R. (1995). State of New Jersey v. Margaret Kelly Michaels: An overview [Abstract]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1, 247271. Retrieved from apa.org/journals/ab1.html
Psychology. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved October 14, 2009, from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
Heuristic (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from m-w.com/dictionary/heuristic
National Institute of Mental Health. (1982). Television and behaviour: Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties (DHHS Publication No. ADM82-1195). Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.
Malachi, Z. (Ed.). (n.d.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Literary and Linguistic Copmputing. Tel Aviv: Faculty of Humanities, Tel Aviv University.
Devins, G. M. (1981). Helplessness, depression, and mood in end-stage renal disease. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, McGill University, Montreal.
Howarth, P. (1995, March). Phraseological standards in EAP. Paper presented at the meeting of the British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes, Nottingham.
Maas, J. B. (Producer), and Gluck, D. H. (Director). (1979). Deeper into hypnosis [Film]. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.