Thanks for visiting our Help guide to the Harvard System of Referencing (sixth edition).
This informative guide is published by the College Library, to aid students, researchers and academic
staff at Anglia Ruskin College.
Within the NEW sixth edition, there’s a choice to make use of DOIs when referencing journal articles, and amendments to section covering quotes.
That will help you there’s a printable quick guide. or perhaps a full guide in .pdf format.
The entire guide has two sections. In part one we demonstrate how you can cite a reference within the text of the assignment, within the second part we’ve incorporated instructions for each one of the primary source types for example books or webpages. Examples receive in red. Any similarity with printed work are coincidental.
- Test yourself with this referencing tutorial
- Have some helpful expressions for citing references in text
Primary GUIDE PART 1: IN-TEXT REFERENCING
Any in-text reference will include the authorship and also the year from the work. With respect to the nature from the sentence/paragraph that’s being written, references to sources might be reported within the text as described below:
Additional support regarding how to introduce such references can be obtained from Student Support within their guide .
When referring to an author’s whole operate in your text, it will provide the name adopted through the year of publication of the work:
When writing for any professional publication, it’s good practice to reference other relevant printed work. This view continues to be based on Cormack (1994).
However. where you stand mentioning a specific area of the work, and making direct or indirect mention of the this, a webpage reference ought to be incorporated:
Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) claims that “when writing for any professional readership, authors almost always reference already printed works”.
Based on Cormack (1994, pp.32-33), authors ought to be asked to reference printed research when addressing professional readership.
An indirect reference
Throughout the mid-twenties research carried out in profssional publishing (Cormack 1994) demonstrated that.
If one makes mention of the a piece or bit of research and not mention the writer within the text then both author’s name and publication year are put in the relevant reason for the sentence or in the finish from the sentence in brackets:
Referring to printed work seems to become sign of writing for any professional audience (Cormack, 1994).
Where reference is built to several author inside a sentence, and they’re known directly, both are reported:
Cruz (1946) and Johnson (1948) have both proven.
When there’s two or three authors for any work, they must be noted within the text
Directly utilizing an and
White-colored and Brown (2004) within their recent research paper found.
Recent research (White-colored and Brown, 2004) shows that.
Other examples using 2 or 3 authors.
Throughout the mid nineties research carried out in Luton (Slater and Johnson, 1996) demonstrated that.
Further research (Eco-friendly, Harris and Dunne, 1969) demonstrated
When there’s two or three authors for any work they ought to be listed (within the order by which their names come in the initial publication), using the name listed last preceded by an and.
Where you can find several authors (four or even more), just the first author ought to be used, adopted by et al.
meaning yet others :
Eco-friendly, et al. (1995) found that almost all.
Recent research (Eco-friendly, et al. 1995) finds that almost all.
List these in the relevant reason for the sentence or in the finish from the sentence, putting the author’s name, adopted through the date of publication and separated with a semi-colon and within brackets.
Where several publications from numerous authors are known, then your references ought to be reported in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):
Further research within the late forties (Cruz, 1946 Johnson, 1948) brought to major developments.
Recent research (Collins, 1998 Brown, 2001 Davies, 2008) implies that
If several publication from a writer illustrates exactly the same point and also the works are printed in numerous years, then your references ought to be reported in chronological order (i.e. earliest first):
as recommended by Patel (1992 1994) who discovered that.
research within the nineties (Patel, 1992 1994) discovered that.
If you’re quoting several works printed through the same author within the same year, they must be differentiated with the addition of a lesser situation letter directly, without any space, following the year for every item:
Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) discovered that. but later research recommended again by Dunn (1993b) that.
If several works printed within the same year are known on one occasion, or perhaps an author has built the same reason for several publications, they are able to be known by utilizing lower situation letters (as above):
Bloggs (1993a 1993b) has mentioned on several occasion that.
References towards the work of the author that seems like a chapter, or a part of a bigger work, that’s edited by another person, ought to be reported in your text using the specific contributory author not the editor from the whole work.
In the focus on health information, Cruz (1975) states.
Within the reference in the finish of the document, you need to include information on both chapter author adopted through the information on the whole work
Cruz, J. 1975. A resource. In: W. Johnson, erectile dysfunction. 2000. A hundred and something ways to find out health. Oxford: Oxford College Press. Ch.2
When the jobs are with a recognised organisation and it has no personal author then it’s usually reported underneath the body that commissioned the job. This is applicable to publications by associations, companies, gov departments etc. for example Department from the Atmosphere or Royal College of Nursing.
It’s acceptable to make use of standard abbreviations of these physiques, e.g. RCN, inside your text, supplying the complete name is offered in the first citing using the abbreviation in brackets:
. following major pioneering research in the year 2006 carried out through the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it’s been proven that.
More lately the RCN (2007) has issued guidelines for.
Observe that the entire name may be the preferred format within the reference list. These ought to provide the entire name.
Royal College of Nursing, 2006. Children locally. London: RCN.
Royal College of Nursing, 2007. Administering intravenous therapy to children locally setting: Guidance for nursing staff. London: RCN.
Some reports are compiled by specifically convened groups or committees and could be reported named the committee:
Committee on Nursing (1972)
Select Committee on Stem Cell Research (2002)
Note there are several exceptions for this for example:
BBC Philharmonic Orchestra
in which the abbreviations or initials form area of the official name.
When the author can’t be identified use ‘Anonymous ‘ or ‘Anon ‘ and also the title from the work and date of publication. The title ought to be designed in italics. Every effort ought to be designed to establish the authorship if you plan to make use of the work as supporting evidence within an academic submission:
Online marketing strategy (Anon. 1999)
The abbreviation n.d. can be used to indicate this:
Cruz (n.d.) has written and shown.
Earlier research (Cruz, n.d.) shown that.
Every effort ought to be designed to establish the entire year of publication if you plan to make use of the work as supporting evidence within an academic submission.
For more advice see Section 9 References with missing details
Such as the page figures of the reference can help readers trace your sources. Many of the essential for quotes as well as for paraphrasing specific sentences within the texts:
Lawrence (1966, p.124) states “we ought to expect. “
This isn’t surprising (Lawrence, 1966, p.124).
Please be aware page figures: preceded with p. for any single page and pp. for a variety of pages.
If you wish to include text from the printed operate in your essay then your sentence(s) should be incorporated within speech marks, and could be created by such phrases as:
the writer claims that “. “
the writer writes that “. “
Around the subject of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p.32) have mentioned. “When writing for any professional readership, authors almost always reference already printed works. “
For a readers to follow the quoted section it’s good practice to own quantity of the page in which the quotation was discovered. You may even indent quotes, but should talk to your Faculty, for guidance and also the relevant Academic Rules.
You might stumbled upon a review of another author’s operate in the origin you’re studying, which you want to reference in your good article, this really is known as secondary referencing.
An immediate in-text reference:
Research lately transported in the higher Manchester area by Brown (1966 reported in Bassett, 1986, p.142) discovered that.
Within this example, Brown may be the work which you want to consult, but haven’t read directly on your own. Bassett may be the secondary source, in which you found the review of Brown’s work.
An indirect in-text citation could be:
(Brown, 1966 reported in Bassett, 1986, p.142)
You should understand that Bassett may take Brown’s ideas forward, and altered their original meaning. If you want to cite another reference it’s suggested that, where possible, you browse the original source on your own instead of depend on another person’s interpretation of the work. Because of this it is advisable to stay away from secondary referencing.
The reference list in the finish of the document must only contain works you have read. Within the above example you’d only list the job by Bassett.
When utilizing selected information from the table or diagram, or reproducing a whole table or diagram, a reference should be designed to the origin.
Within the following example, details are from the table available on p267 from the book Management in media: decision makers by Robert Brown printed in 2005. The initial supply of the information utilized in the table in Brown’s book was the nation’s Statistics Office, 1985.
Should you quote out of this table within the text of the essay – treat as secondary referencing:
historic figures show only 60 percent of homes had televisions in great britan through the 1970s (National Statistics Office, 1985 reported in Brown, 2005, p. 267).
Should you reproduce the table inside your essay: replicate the entire table, and give a citation underneath the table to understand in which the table was discovered
Television possession in Britain
(Number of households)
Information for example place and writer not located on the document, but tracked using their company sources, ought to be put into square brackets.
You need to, however be very careful about using as supporting evidence material in which you cannot find out the author, date or source.
GOOD ACADEMIC PRACTICE
Should you comprehend the causes of referencing it’s apparent why you need to not pass off work of others as the own. Neglecting to reference appropriately could cause your assessors thinking you’re responsible for plagiarism – the action of using another woman’s work or ideas as the own. You’ll find information associated with academic honesty in a variety of student documentation including module guides and student handbooks.
The college has lately introduced Turnitin to help you in identifying in which you used original material to be able to make sure it is properly referenced inside your submission.
This really is based on the College policy associated with academic honesty. Student handbooks for undergraduate and publish graduated pupils make reference to the College Library Harvard Guide for guidance. Students should however look into the relevant guidelines for his or her subject inside the Faculty.
To learn more begin to see the College Library serction on referencing
NB: To help students once they run the work they do through Turnitin, Double speech marks are suggested.
You have to provide references inside your work so that you can:
Demonstrate you have read broadly and deeply.
Show your understand a subject and who accounts for its development.
By supplying the initial source you’re acknowledging you have browse the work and recognise the initial author(s) ideas.
Assist the readers locate in which you acquired each quote or idea.
A reference list is definitely needed whenever you cite other’s work in your assignment.
In academic writing, to aid and supply evidence for the arguments, you cite the fabric you’ve used. You need to do this by talking about, or citing, the authors accountable for the data. These details may come from journal or newspaper articles, government reports, books or specific chapters of books, research dissertations or theses, or perhaps be material on the internet etc.
Whenever you cite someone’s operate in the written text of the assignment(an in-text citation), you should also produce a full reference. It goes in the finish of the work. This provides detailed information for that information source in order that it could be tracked by anybody who reads your projects.
Evidence should be from authoritive sources!
The Harvard System
There are lots of systems for that citation of references.
Most Ability at Anglia Ruskin College expect students to make use of the Harvard type of referencing -that is a writer and date system.
A 2 part reference system
In-text – citing inside the assignment script- author’s surname and year of publication
Reference list in the finish from the assignment- detailed information from the document eg a magazine
Essential aspects of an essay are “a highly effective structure ” (Redman, 2006, p.22), plus a leading introduction which.
Redman, P. 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd erectile dysfunction. London: Open College in assoc. with Sage.
Remember will be consistent in the manner you record your references.
Reference List or Bibliography: What are the differences?
A Reference List includes details for exactly what you cite in in your assignment. It ought to be from a to z by author with the various kinds of material in a single sequence (See Section 3.1 for more details). A Reference List is definitely needed whenever you cite other’s work in your assignment. Sometimes the terms reference list and bibliography are utilized interchangeably. Make certain guess what happens is needed for the assignment. Look into the module guide before you decide to complete your assignment.
Some Departments may request you to create a Bibliography. This can be a listing of relevant products you have used that will help you get ready for a job but which aren’t always reported inside your assignment eg. general background studying to familiarise yourself using the subject.
An annotated bibliography includes the entire mention of the sources with the help of notes, which summarise and assess the source and will also be of variable length, with respect to the assessment this can be a completely independent project or a part of a bigger research study.
Is referencing incorporated within the Number Of Words?
Look into the Academic Rules section X for details of what’s excluded in the number of words of the submission. These may be utilized around the College website underneath the section for that Academic Office. (link)
We’ve also created a Harvard Quick Guide (.pdf) which provides coverage for the fundamentals of Harvard Referencing. Student services possess a guide with types of how you can cite in text (.pdf). If you work with this informative guide along with Refworks choose the output style “Anglia Ruskin Harvard Style v5”. You can look at your understanding of referencing if you take our Understanding Referencing Quiz.
The College Library has released this fifth edition from the Help guide to Referencing within the Harvard Style. This really is compiled by Library staff at Anglia Ruskin to aid students’ information skills, researchers and academic staff, and matches the Anglia Ruskin College Academic Rules This summer 2015.
Some changes introduced because the last edition are:
- Referencing of e versions of educational /peer reviewed journal articles
- New assistance with using quotes
This informative guide continues to be compiled with regards to numerous British Standards. The newest being BS ISO 690:2010 Information and documentation – guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information sources and Harvard style conventions presently being adopted in United kingdom Universities.
If you want to re-make use of the Show you may achieve this underneath the the Creative Commons licence as lengthy as the me is limited to non-commercial purposes and also the source is acknowledged. If you want to re-make use of the Guide please call us first .
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