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Title: Dissertation Defense

1
Dissertation Defense

  • Turning Information into Action Assessing and
    Reporting GIS Metadata Integrity Using Integrated
    Computing Technologies

Timothy Mulrooney

2
Outline

  • GIS Metadata Background
  • The Issue
  • Research Questions
  • Methodology
  • Testing and Results
  • Conclusion
  • Discussion

3
GIS Data Details

  • Most data possess a spatial element
  • Most pricey element of GIS is data
    development

4
What’s Metadata?
Driving while impaired in Winston-Salem
How Maybe you have Create These Data?
So What Can These Data Represent?
How can you Make contact with the one which
Manages the information?
When Were These Data Printed?
5
The Issue

  • Within the Single Metadata File
  • Greater than 400 Elements
  • 7 FGDC (according to CSDGM) Needed Elements
  • 15 FGDC Recommended Elements
  • 21 Other Interesting Elements
  • These work
  • 120 Databases
  • 50 110 layers per database

6
Research Questions

  • How can mathematical methods affect GIS
    metadata to help the choice making process?

7
Methodology

  • Idea came to exist from mass population and extraction of
    metadata values
  • Used ArcObjects/VBA
  • Previous metadata extraction restricted to
  • software applications
  • operating-system
  • Why done regularly?

8
Metadata Assessment and Reporting Tool (MART)
9
Data Preparation

  • Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting
    Language)
  • Perl extracts facets of various XML metadata
    files and puts them into single CSV file

10
FGDC Compliancy

  • Test FGDC Compliancy
  • Used Perl to determine if appropriate metadata
    elements were populated

11
Data Analysis

  • What descriptive metrics can best affect
    GIS metadata?
  • Temporal Mean
  • Temporal Median
  • Converted big Endian format (ISO 8601) to ratio
    number, performed calculations then to
    date

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12
Data Analysis

  • Use Perl and R programming language to
    dynamically assess quantitative and qualitative
    metadata fields
  • R could be a language and atmosphere for record
    computing and graphics

13
Is due to this Analysis
Average Horizontal Precision 104.3
Meters Temporal Mean 20020402
Average Horizontal Precision 31.7
Meters Temporal Mean 20071002
14
Supervised Techniques

  • Custom application acquainted with query database
    containing metadata information
  • PHP language and MySQL database to question
    specifics of all data layers using web
    interface
  • Enables you to definitely slowly move the buying process

15
Not viewed Data Mining Techniques

  • Manner of sorting through immeasureable understanding
    to be able to choose relevant information
  • Rule Induction (Association Rule Mining)
  • Uncover interesting relationships between
    variables
  • Beer and Diapers example
  • Integrate existing Perl ARM module with custom
    application to produce transaction table from
    which rules are derived.

16
Transaction Table Creation

  • Decomposition in the 2-dimensional array into
    1-dimension. For 890 layers and 43 attributes,
    you will observe 38,270 transactions
  • The easiest method to express quantitative values in nominal or
    ordinal atmosphere (low, medium, high, location)
  • The easiest method to express categorical data within
    transaction table

17
MARTO-XML

  • XML Standard acquainted with describe output from
    analysis (Metadata Assessment and Reporting Tool
    Output)

18
Data Rendering

  • Solutions are printed inside a web site
  • Modules tied together using batch files
  • New data and graphs are produced round the schedule
  • Old data are archived
  • New links established
  • Saved and referenced from legacy XML files

19
Testing

  • Human Testing of 40 respondents using real GIS
    data on MART
  • GIS professionals navigate is due to analysis
    in web atmosphere
  • Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) acquainted with assess
    the effectiveness of fractional laser treatments

20
Testing Atmosphere

  • GIS database of 890 individual data layers
  • Ran and printed output all aforementioned
    modules
  • Surveyed 40 respondents for opinions across the
    applications convenience, effectiveness, potential
    utility along with the intention to make use of the program

21
Testing FGDC Compliancy
22
Temporal and Horizontal Precision
23
Supervised Techiques

  • Database from 890 data layers was queried having a
    web interface produced using PHP and dynamically
    produced HTML form elements
  • Output was printed within the tabular HTML table with
    records satisfying the information query being printed

24
Not viewed Techniques

  • Search for patterns within the large transaction
    table within the support, confidence and strength
  • Used an assistance Quantity of 2 (getting an assistance level
    of four, there’d be than 526,00 rules)
  • For support level 2 and confidence of .7 (1
    antecedent and 1 consequence), 6204 rules were
    produced
  • Solutions are printed within the .txt file

25
Sample Rules Produced

  • 67 1.000 Place_KeyNorth_Carolina gt
    GeoidNOT_FOUND
  • 508 .992 Place_KeyForsyth_County gt
    Publication_DateMedium
  • 32 .800 LocationNorthwest gt Publication_DateOl
    d
  • 353 1.000 Data_ThemePublic_Safety gt
    EllipsoidNOT_FOUND
  • 14 .824 Data_ThemeWetlands gt
    Publication_DateUnknown
  • These rules together with supervised techniques
    can dictate allocation of sources and decisions
    later on

26
Testing

  • Technology Acceptance Model
  • Uses survey-based queries to distinguish
    relationship in the technologys
  • Perceived Convenience (PEOU)
  • Perceived Effectiveness (PU)
  • Attitude Towards Using (ATTIUDE)
  • Intention to make use of (ITU)

27
TAM Model Used

  • H1 Perceived Convenience for MART includes a
    major effect across the Perceived Effectiveness of
    MART.
  • H2 Perceived Convenience for MART includes a
    major effect across the Attitude Towards Using
    MART
  • H3 Perceived Effectiveness of MART includes a
    major effect across the Attitude Towards Using
    MART.
  • H4 Perceived Effectiveness of MART includes a
    major impact on Intention to make use of MART.
  • H5 Attitude towards using MART includes a
    major impact on Intention to make use of MART.

28
TAM Question
29
Precursory Analysis of individuals Taking Test
30
Is due to Respondents

  • People responded most positively towards the simplicity
    use
  • Least positively for your intention to make use of

31
Hypothesis Testing

  • After performing Chronbachs alpha to discover
    reliability and PCA to describe variance,
    ideas were tested from categories of question
    present in general market trends.

32
Hypothesis Testing
33
Hypothesis Testing
34
Explanation of Hypothesis Testing

  • H3 not recognized Strong correlation between
    Perceived Convenience and Attitude Towards Using.
    Perceived Convenience is much more in the adding
    factor for your Attitude Towards Using than
    Perceived Effectiveness.
  • H5 not recognized Respondents impression about
    free atmosphere in position to make use of
    MART, but was recognized at roughly 70 CI.

35
Conclusions

  • Growing schism between data creation that is
    assessment
  • Metadata reinforces qc and quality
    assurance procedures utilized by a company
  • We wish a method so everybody can assess various
    size metadata quickly
  • MART serves to be able to evaluate GIS metadata
  • MART provides a forum so users can speak with
    GIS metadata through getting an finish reason for supporting
    business decisions which ultimately save your time and
    money

36
Conclusions

  • Quantitative metadata elements for example FGDC
    compliancy, date and horizontal precision may be
    assessed using programming languages for example R
    and Perl
  • Users can search GIS metadata using supervised
    techniques employing a web interface
  • Association Rule Mining is pertinent to GIS
    metadata
  • If given an option, users choose to query GIS
    metadata as opposed to receiving is due to
    not viewed techniques
  • Using TAM, 3 from 5 research ideas
    supported at 95 CI
  • According to user feedback, the implementation or
    interest in MART and free atmosphere within
    their It had been the best hindrance having a users
    intention to make use of MART

37
Discussion

  • Integration of MART along with other types of
    geo-referenced data
  • Remotely thought data and ortho-imagery
    (Laboratory for Advanced It
    and Standards)
  • TINs
  • Topologies
  • Relationship Classes
  • Stand-alone tables
  • Metadata and proprietary format
  • Usability with current GIS software
  • VBA / ArcObjects to alter metadata in BLOB
    format to XML for ESRI software
  • Various Accuracies within MART
  • Temporal and Horizontal
  • Attribute
  • Logical Consistency
  • Semantic

38
Discussion

  • Interestingness problem
  • 6,204 rules at support level 2 and confidence of
    .7
  • Cardinality of understanding
  • 43 attributes. 6,204 rules
  • 6 attributes. 73 rules
  • Attributes selected were Data Theme, Location,
    Horizontal Precision, Publication Date,
    Responsible Party, Metadata POC
  • TAM Methodology different types and ideas
    might be suggested
  • Presentation of not viewed techniques to a text
    file. Web atmosphere is a lot more helpful
  • Knowledge of outdoors source atmosphere

39

  • Questions or Comments?

40
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42
Decomposition of XML File Using Perl

  • metadata”r01_Data_Set_Title” gt
    “idinfo_citation_citeinfo_title”
  • When using the following command
  • traverse all files
  • foreach filename (_at_files)
  • filename s////g change all forward
    slashes to back-slashed to enhance proper
    navigation
  • print “nn. Decomposing “,
    basename(filename), “. n”
  • Create structure to traverse XML schema.
    Before going for the following value, however,
  • we have to reset the hash value.
  • tree XMLin(filename)
  • metadata”rMissing” ”
  • metadata”fileName” filename
  • metadata”sMissing” ”
  • foreach key (sort keys SearchList)
  • print “key SearchListkeyn”
  • Item FindItem(SearchListkey)
  • print “Item Itemnn”

43
National Mapping Precision Standards
For Scales 120,000 or greater .033 inches
Proportions of Map For Scales 120,000 or lower .02
inches Proportions of Map
44
Sample Output from Supervised Techniques
45
Chronbachs Alpha
Chronbachs alpha is computed using the amount of
respondents within the set, the variance within the data
and mean within the covariance between everyone of
the set. While there’s no universal threshold
to uncover data consistency, Hair et. al.
(1998) recommended minimum threshold between .6
and .7. According to Table 10, one of individuals values
(Perceived Convenience) is between .6 and .7
while two values (Perceived Effectiveness and
Attitude Towards Using) are between .7 and .8.
The Chronbachs Alpha constant for the Intention
to make use of component is .807, that’s considered
excellent (Nunnally 1978). Given these values,
it may be surmised the questions posed for
the respondent ser
46
Principal Components
To assist be aware of individual factors that
increase the risk for potential inconsistency,
principal component analysis was performed on
all of the individual queries to help
determine their potential contribution for that
variability within the observed results. Four
factors were calculated, while using different
areas of the study tips to become
tested. After rotation, the Perceived Easy
Use considered 56.33 within the variance. The
Perceived Effectiveness components consider
11.93, Attitude Towards Using considered
9.24 since the Intention to make use of factor accounted
for 7.04. Table 11 shows these items and factor
loadings for the individual factors. Finally,
another fundamental correlations were run between
potentially dependent factors for example sex and age
to assist determine their potential contribution to
the outcome. However, no significant correlation
was discovered between participants age, gender and
even self-described GIS experience versus
dependent variables for example Perceived Easy
use, Perceived Effectiveness, Attitude and Intention
to make use of which is based in the TAM analysis.
47
Potential RS Attributes

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