Home Reference of terms
Reference of terms
Acervulus(i): A pad of hyphae bearing short conidiophores packed carefully together. Achlorophyllous: Missing chlorophyll. Aflatoxins: Several very toxic mycotoxins created with a few types of Aspergillus. Agaric: Common status for anyone inside an order Agaricales (Basidiomycota). Anastomosis: Fusion between hyphae. Antheridium(a): Male gametangium. Aplanospore: A non-motile spore. Apothecium(a): Open, cup-produced ascocarp created with a few kinds of the Ascomycota. Arbuscules: Minute, tree-like hyphal branching structures created within host plant cells by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Arbuscular mycorrhizas: Mycorrhizas created by fungi in the Glomeromycota. Arthrospore: Asexual spore created using the septation and fragmentation in the hypha. Ascocarp: Fruiting body of fungi in the Ascomycota, bearing asci. Ascogenous hypha(e): A dikaryotic hypha emerging from an ascogonium after fertilization, that literally brings about asci in fungi in the Ascomycota. Ascogonium(a): Female gametangium in fungi within the Ascomycota, which contains cells which are fertilized during sexual reproduction. Ascospores: Sexual spores of fungi in the Ascomycota, borne in asci. Ascostroma(ta): An ascocarp bearing asci directly in tooth decay within the compact mass of hyphae. Ascus(i): Cell(s) containing ascospores in fungi within the Ascomycota. Asexual reproduction: Reproduction NOT involving karyogamy and meiosis. Basidiocarp: Fruiting body of fungi within the Basidiomycota, bearing basidia. Basidiospores: Sexual spores of fungi in the Basidiomycota. Basidium(a): Enlarged terminal cell in the hypha. bearing basidiospores. Bioremediation: Using microorganisms to get rid of or detox toxic or undesirable chemicals in a atmosphere.
Biotrophic: Acquiring nutrients from living host cells without killing them. Blastic conidium: Conidium due to a yeast cell or hypha because of elongation and swelling before separation getting a septum. Chemostat: Apparatus present in a ongoing culture system. Chlamydospore: Thick-walled, melanized thallic conidium that develops in the current hyphal compartment which functions as being a resting spore. Cleistothecium(a): A completely closed fruiting body created with a few fungi within the Ascomycota, containing asci. Colony: Several individuals from the species moving into close association for fungi, usually describes several many yeast cells or maybe a mycelium via some time, cell or spore. Columella(e): A curved mix-wall extending inside the tip in the sporangiophore towards the sporangium. Conidiophore: A hypha giving rise to conidia. Conidium(a): Asexual spore supported round the hypha. NOT contained in a sporangium. Coremium(a): Structure of aggregated hyphae bearing conidia inside their tips. Dikaryon: A hyphal compartment, mycelium or yeast cell occupied getting some or pairs of carefully connected, genetically different, sexually compatible nuclei. Dolipore septum: Septum with elaborate ultrastructure, found in fungi in the Basidiomycota. Encystment: Formation in the thick wall, e.g. around a zoospore after it settles and loses its flagellum(a). Extracellular enzyme: An enzyme whose action round the substrate happens outdoors the cell’s protoplasm.
Fairy ring: A gem ring of mushrooms created close to an undercover mycelium. Fertilization tube: A tube utilizing a mans gametangium and penetrating the feminine gametangium by which your gametes (nuclei) are transferred. Fruit(ing) body: Large spore-bearing structure created by kinds of the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Gametangium(a): A structure specialized for creating gametes during sexual reproduction. Germ-pore: A thinner part of spore wall by which a germ-tube emerges. Germ-tube: An immature hypha emerging within the spore. Heterothallism: The benefits of two compatible mating types for sexual reproduction self-sterility. Homothallism: Another mating type isn’t needed for sexual reproduction self-fertility. Hymenium(a): The very best fruiting body which sexually created spores are borne in asci (Ascomycota) or on basidia (Basidiomycota). Hypha(e): Filamentous structure which exhibits apical growth as well as the developmental unit in the mycelium. Isolate: Stress in the fungus introduced into pure culture (i.e. isolated) within the specific atmosphere. Jelly fungi: Term sometimes put on the Tremellales (in the Basidiomycota). Karyogamy: The fusion of nuclei, preceding producing sexual spores. Lichen: A symbiotic association between eco-friendly or blue-eco-friendly algal cells and yeast hyphae. Monokaryon: A hyphal compartment, mycelium or yeast cell occupied by nuclei of a single genotype. Mycelium(a): A branching network of hyphae. Mycobiont: The yeast element of a lichen. Mycology: The study into fungi. Mycoparasite: A fungus capable of parasitising another fungus. Mycoprotein: Protein of yeast origin, particularly from mycelial species. Mycorrhiza: A symbiotic association in the plant root and yeast hyphae. Mycotoxin: An over-all term for almost any contaminant created getting a fungus. Myxamoeba: An amoeboid cell, especially in the Myxomycota. Necrotroph: A fungus that kills cells in the living host then utilizes individuals cells as being a method of getting nutrients. Oidium(a): A kind of asexual spore connected with getting about dikaryotization in fungi in the Basidiomycota. Oogonium(a): A woman gametangium. Oosphere: A woman gamete inside a oogonium. Oospore: A diploid spore created by kinds of the Oomycota. Perithecium(a): A flask-produced fruiting-body created with a few types of the Ascomycota inside the neck which asci are discharged. Photobiont: The algal element of a lichen. Pileus: The cap in the mushroom. Pycnidium(a): A hollow, flask-produced structure lined with conidiophores bearing conidia. Quorn: The commercial trademark for a number of foods containing mycoprotein. Radial growth: Development in the centre, e.g. in the yeast colony. Resting spore: A spore with prolonged survival potential, or maybe a spore that’s in the health of dormancy. Rhizoid: An excellent filamentous structure which actually reaches the substrate and anchors the cell or surface mycelium. Saprotrophic: Using dead microorganisms as being a method of getting nutrients. Septum(a): A mixture-wall within the hypha. Sexual reproduction: Reproduction involving karyogamy and meiosis. Sporangiophore: A hypha which bears a sporangium Sporangiospore: An asexual spore borne within the sporangium. Sporangium(a): A specialized cell containing sporangiospores. Sterigma(ta): Somewhat outgrowth that can help a sporangium. a conidium or maybe a basidiospore. Stipe: The stalk in the mushroom or toadstool. Thallic conidia: Conidia created because of the septation and fragmentation in the hypha. Trehalose: An oligosaccharide from some fungi. Trichogyne: The receptive hypha created during sexual fertilization in fungi in the Ascomycota. Universal veil: A skinny membrane covering some kinds of youthful mushrooms because the mushroom expands the veil tears along with the remains may form scales across the pileus and comprise the volva. Uredospores: Dikaryotic spores created by rust fungi (Uredinales). Volva: Just one cup in the finish in the stipe of certain mushrooms a remnant within the universal veil. Woronin body: An electron-opaque, spherical, membrane-bound proteinaceous structure found in hyphae of fungi in the Ascomycota plus a handful of mitosporic species (formerly Deuteromycota), located near septa. Xerotolerant fungus: A fungus capable of growing on substrates having a low water potential, i.e. water activities below .85. Yeast: A unicellular fungus that multiplies asexually by budding or fission. Zoosporangium(a): A specialized cell by which zoospores develop, that they are freed. Zoospore: A motile sporangiospore capable of swimming in water utilizing a volume of flagella. Zygospore: A spore created following fusion of two gametangia in fungi in the Zygomycota. Zygote: A diploid cell introduced on through the union of two haploid cells adopted by karyogamy.