1. Problem. The methodology typically follows your literature review, so for the purposes of clarity and regaining focus it is useful briefly to recap the central research questions of your dissertation. Define and explain the problems which you seek to address.
2. Approach. Give an overview of your approach to primary research in order to guide the reader and contextualise your methodology. By identifying all methodological aspects to which to will attend – rationale, justification, sampling issues, etc. – you can signal unambiguously to the reader that you fully understand the implications of thorough, astute methodology.
3. Reproducibility. The ability to reproduce the results of an experiment is a hallmark of proper scientific method; in the humanities also, reproducibility indicates greater credibility and usefulness. Provide a detailed description of your techniques, such that those wishing to challenge your position could, if they wished, reproduce the same research.
4. Precedence. Consider whether your research methodology is typical of comparable research projects within your particular subject area. A review of the relevant literature will doubtless find some comparable endeavours, in which case the adoption of those methodologies may lend authority to your approach.
5. Justification. It is absolutely essential that you provide sound reasons for the methods your have chosen to conduct your research. This aspect is particularly important when adopting a novel or non-standard methodology. Approaches at odds with comparable endeavours require considerable rigorous justification.
6. Rationale. No matter what type of research, there is almost always a number of methodological approaches available.
In your rationale, critically evaluate alternate approaches in order to defend the methods you have finally chosen. Weigh up the pros and cons of all relevant alternatives, including your own choice.
7. Reliability and validity. Essential considerations in all types of research, issues of reliability and validity must be explicitly discussed. Many matters fall under this area, including accuracy, precision, sources of error and statistical significance.
8. Sampling. Questions concerning sampling techniques and sample size can be considered under reliability and validity, but are often important enough to be given special attention. The impact of sample size upon statistical significance of your results is an issue of such importance that you should be mindful of this when designing and writing up your methodology.
9. Appendix. Keep your methodology chapter focussed and lucidly written by appending indirectly relevant material to the end of your dissertation writing. Copies of questionnaires and other methodological material should usually be placed in the appendix.
10. Generalisation. Include a section in your methodology which directly addresses the question of how far data obtained through your approach can be generalised. Bear this issue in mind when designing your methodology too, as results with general significance outside of your direct data set will tend to increase the persuasiveness of your eventual findings.
Our consultants are skilled in both quantitative and qualitative methods and can
assist students choose and defend an appropriate research design.
The purpose of the methodology chapter is to give an experienced investigator enough information to replicate the study. Some advisors do not understand this and require students to write what is, in effect, a textbook. A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of the study. The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible methodology chapter.
Appropriateness of the Research Design
This section is optional in some institutions, but required by others. Specify that the research for the dissertation is experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, causal-comparative, quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, or another design. Be specific. The designated approach should be defended by contrasting and comparing it with alternate methods and rejecting those that do not meet the
needs of the study. This section should not be a textbook description of various research designs, but a
focused effort to match a rational research design with the purpose of the study.
A qualitative study does not have variables. A scientific study has variable, which are sometimes mentioned in Chapter 1 and defined in more depth in Chapter 3. Spell out the independent and dependent, variables. An unfortunate trend in some institutions is to repeat the research questions and/or hypotheses in both Chapter 1 and Chapter 3, a needless redundancy. Sometimes an operational statement of the research hypotheses in null form is given to set the stage for later statistical inferences. In a quantitative study, state the level of significance that will be used to accept or reject the hypotheses.
In a quantitative study, a survey instrument that is researcher designed needs a pilot study to validate the effectiveness of the instrument, and the value of the questions to elicit the right information to answer the primary research questions in. In a scientific study, a pilot study may precede the main observation to correct any problems with the instrumentation or other elements in the data collection technique. Describe the pilot study as it relates to the research design, development of the instrument, data collection procedures, or characteristics of the sample.
Setting and Participants
In a quantitative study, describe the geographic location where the study will take place, cite recognizable landmarks such as a nearby urban city. Describe the participant pool.
In a qualitative study, the decision regarding the number of participants in a study becomes a reflection the study’s purpose. Ten to twelve participants may prove sufficient in qualitative inquiries involving the understanding of experiences and perceptions of participants. A successful purposeful sample in a phenomenological study could range from 1 to 40. Sample size is based on the total number of potential participants. The required sample size should be determined through a power analysis. Such an analysis uses the alpha level and the population effect size (the estimated effect of the independent variable within the target population) to estimate the number of participants needed to demonstrate an existing effect. Typically, researchers strive for a power of .80, which refers to an 80% certainty that an existing effect will be found in the sample. The effect is the difference in perceived effectiveness between mediums.
In a qualitative study, the instrument used to collect data may be created by the researcher or based on an existing instrument. If the instrument is researcher created, the process used to select the questions should be described and justified. If an existing instrument is used, the background of the instrument is described including who originated it and what measures were used to validate it. If a Likert scale is used, the scale should be described. If the study involves interviews, an interview protocol should be developed that will result in a consistent process of data collection across all interviews. Two types of questions are found in an interview protocol: the primary research questions, which are not asked of the participants, and the interview questions that are based on the primary research questions and are asked of the participants. Instruments should be placed in an appendix, not in the body of the text. Most qualitative studies include both a demographic survey to develop a picture of the participants, and an interview protocol. If the instrument is researcher created, a pilot study should be conducted to test the instrument.
In a scientific study, the instrumentation used to collect data is described in detail, which may include an illustration of the setup.
Fully describe how the data were collected. In a qualitative study, this is the section where most of the appendices are itemized, starting with letters of permission to conduct the study and letters of invitation to participate with attached consent forms. This is also the place where any study involving human subjects must state that it is compliant with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Code of Federal Regulations, 45 CFR § 46.102 (2009). A paragraph must be inserted that states the study is deemed to be one of minimal risk to participants and that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research will not be greater than any ordinarily encountered in daily life, or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests. In a quantitative study, this section will detail when and how the data were collected.
Data Processing and Analysis
In both qualitative and quantitative studies, the precise method of how the data were processed and then analyzed is described. Increasingly, in qualitative studies, data collection and analysis is accomplished by using any one of several data collection and analysis tools available on the Internet such as SurveyMonkey. Internet services are fast and accurate, and produce data that can be quickly incorporated in Chapter 4.
In a qualitative study, the procedures for the protection of human participants should be stated. This section is nearly identical in all qualitative studies, which makes it subject to identification as plagiarism when submitted to a mechanical plagiarism tool. Ethical concerns are important, particularly in reference to planning, conducting, and evaluating research. The study should present minimal risk to participants pertaining to experimental treatment or exposure to physical or psychological harm. Care should be taken to ensure that the participants fully understood the nature of the study and the fact that participation is voluntary. A statement should be made that confidentiality of recovered data will be maintained at all times, and identification of participants will not be available during or after the study.
Internal and External Validity
Validity is the criteria for how effective the design is in employing methods of measurement that will capture the data to address the research questions. There are two types of validity: internal, and external. Internal validity in quantitative studies refers to the study’s ability to determine cause and effect.
Internal validity is a confirmation of the correctness of the study design. Internal validity can be assured in both qualitative and quantitative studies with pilot testing of the proposed survey instrumentation to assure that the instrument is clear and unambiguous. Pilot testing of instruments is a procedure to enable the researcher to make modifications to an instrument based on results.
External validityis the extent to which the results of the study can reflect similar outcomes elsewhere, and can be generalized to other populations or situations. Regardless of whether a self-designed or validated instrument is used to collect data, or whether it is a qualitative or quantitative study, how validity will be assured must be stated. How the study is conducted and reported is illustrative of the validity and reliability and should align with the theoretical framework in Chapter 1. Triangulation of the results enhances the validity of findings. Triangulation validates the methodology by an examination of the results from several perspectives
Summarize the research design and prepare the reader for the next chapter.
Source: Barbara von Diether, EdD