By Richard Nordquist. Grammar & Composition Expert
Richard Nordquist, Ph.D. in British, is professor emeritus of rhetoric and British at Lance armstrong Atlantic Condition College and also the author of two grammar and composition textbooks for school freshmen, Writing Exercises (Macmillan) and Passages: A Author’s Guide (St. Martin’s Press). Richard has offered because the About.com Help guide to Grammar Composition since 2006.
Updated This summer 14, 2016.
In classical rhetoric. logos may be the way of persuasion by illustration showing logical proof, real or apparent. Plural: logoi. Also known as rhetoricalargument. logical proof. and rational appeal .
Logos is among the three types of artistic proof in Aristotle’s rhetorical theory.
"Logos has numerous meanings," notes George A. Kennedy. "[I]its something that is ’said,’ but that is one word, a sentence, a part of an address or of the written work, or perhaps a whole speech.
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It connotes the information as opposed to the style (which may be lexis ) and frequently implies logical reasoning. Thus it may also mean ’argument ’ and ’reason’. Unlike ’rhetoric ,’ using its sometimes negative connotations. logos [within the classical era] was consistently considered like a positive element in human existence" (A Brand New Good reputation for Classical Rhetoric. 1994).
See Examples and Observation below. Also see:
In the Greek, "speech, word, reason"
Examples and Observations
- "Aristotle’s third component of proof [after ethos and pathos ] was logos . or logical proof. Like Plato, his teacher, Aristotle might have preferred that loudspeakers use correct reasoning, but Aristotle’s method of existence was more practical than Plato’s, and that he wisely observed that skilled loudspeakers could persuade by attractive to proofs that appeared true."
(Halford Ryan, Classical Communication for that Contemporary Communicator. Mayfield, 1992)
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- "The attracts reason why an orator would use don’t violate the concepts of strict logic they’re just adaptations of logic. So, whereas the syllogism and induction would be the forms that reasoning consumes logic, the enthymeme and also the example would be the forms that reasoning consumes rhetoric ."
(Edward P.J. Corbett and Robert J. Connors, Classical Rhetoric for that Modern Student. Oxford College Press, 1999)
- Logos and also the Sophists
"Virtually everyone considered a Sophist by offspring was worried about instruction in logos. Based on most accounts, the teaching from the skills of public argument was the important thing towards the Sophists’ financial success, along with a good a part of their condemnation by Plato.
"Any citizen [in ancient A holiday in greece] could finish in court with the necessity to defend themself, therefore, the Sophists’ teaching of logos was essential and useful. As Aristotle place it, ’It is absurd to carry that the man needs to be embarrassed with being not able to protect themself together with his braches, although not to be not able to protect themself with speech and reason, when using rational speech is much more distinctive of a person than using his braches’ (Rhetoric 1355b)."
(Edward Schiappa, Protagoras and Logos: Research in Greek Philosophy and Rhetoric. second erectile dysfunction.
College of Sc Press, 2003)
"Retrieving a far more supportive Plato includes retrieving two essential Innocent notions. The first is the broad perception of logos that’s at the office in Plato and also the sophists, based on which ’logos’ means speech, statement, reason, language, explanation, argument, as well as the intelligibility around the globe itself. These guys the idea, present in Plato’s Phaedrus. that logos features its own special power, psychagogia. leading the soul, which rhetoric is definitely an make an effort to be a skill or discipline of the power."
(James Crosswhite, Deep Rhetoric: Philosophy, Reason, Violence, Justice, Knowledge. The College of Chicago Press, 2013)
– "Aristotle’s great innovation within the Rhetoric may be the discovery that argument is the middle of the skill of persuasion. Should there be three causes of proof, logos. ethos, and pathos, then logos can be found in two significantly different guises within the Rhetoric. In I.4-14, logos can be found in enthymemes. your body of proof form and performance are inseparable In II.18-26 reasoning has pressure of their own. I.4-14 is difficult for contemporary readers since it treats persuasion as logical, instead of emotional or ethical, but it’s not in almost any easily recognizable sense formal."
(Eugene Garver, Aristotle’s Rhetoric: A Skill of Character. The College of Chicago Press, 1994)
– "Aristotle’s management of logical proof remains an essential dimension of study in rhetoric. Students, scholars, and rhetors alike continue to consult Aristotle’s discussion of probable argumentation and also the enthymeme. The smoothness and performance from the enthymeme is susceptible to various interpretations. Some maintain that it is role is mainly postjudgment proof, while some reason that additionally, it works as a heuristic. What’s quite obvious is the fact that Aristotle carefully distinguished the probable reasoning connected using the rhetorical enthymeme in the more rigorous reasoning identified using the dialectical syllogism ."
(Jesse M. Atwill, "Aristotle." Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication from Ancient Occasions towards the Information Age. erectile dysfunction. by Theresa Enos. Routledge, 1996)
"The logos of sixth- and fifth-century [BC] thinkers is better understood like a rationalistic rival to traditional mythos –the religious worldview preserved in epic poetry. The poetry of times performed the functions now allotted to a number of educational practices: religious instruction, moral training, history texts, and reference manuals (Havelock 1983, 80). Because most the populace didn’t read regularly, poetry was preserved communication that offered as Greek culture’s preserved memory."
(Edward Schiappa, The Beginnings of Rhetorical Theory in Classical A holiday in greece. Yale College Press, 1999)
"Bad reasoning in addition to good reasoning can be done which truth is the building blocks from the practical side of logic."
(Charles S. Peirce)
Logical proofs (SICDADS) are convincing since they’re real and attracted from experience. Answer all the proof questions that affect your trouble.
- Signs . What signs reveal that this can be true?
- Induction . What examples can one use? What conclusion can one tap into the examples? Can my readers result in the "inductive leap" in the examples for an acceptance from the conclusion?
- Cause . What’s the primary reason for the debate? Do you know the effects?
- Deduction . What conclusions am i going to draw? What general concepts, warrants, and examples could they be according to?
- Analogies . What comparisons can one make? Can One reveal that what went down previously can happen again or that what went down in a single situation can happen in another?
- Definition . What should i define?
- Statistics. What statistics can one use? How must i present them?
(N. Wood, Perspectives on Argument. Pearson, 2004)