Fuji ( ) is a technique of “planchette writing spirit writing automatic writing ” using whether sieve or perhaps a stay with write Chinese figures in sand or incense ashes.
Beginning round the Ming Empire (1368-1644 CE), the fuji method and written figures altered from “offer the sieve” (spirit-writing utilizing a suspended sieve or winnowing tray) to “offer the planchette” (utilizing a stick or stylus, typically produced from a willow or peach branch, and roughly resembling a dowsing -fishing rod, see De Groot 1910 6:1296). Sieve divination or coscinomancy is culturally prevalent, and Chao (1942:21) compares practices in ancient A holiday in greece and Rome, medieval Europe, and India.
Chinese fuji spirit-writing involves some specialized vocabulary. Luan “a mythical phoenix-like bird” (see Jordan and Overmyer 1986:36-88 distinguish the fenghuang “Chinese phoenix”) can be used in synonyms for example fuluan “offer the phoenix,” feiluan “flying phoenix,” and jiangluan “climbing down phoenix”. The fuji process involves specialized participants. The 2 people (or rarely one) who contain the sieve or stylus are known as jishou “planchette hands”, just one who is evidently possessed with a shen “spirit god” or xian “immortal transcendent”. Their assistants incorporate a pingsha “level sand” who smoothes the shapan “sand table”, a dujizhe “planchette readers” who interprets the figures, along with a chaojizhe “planchette copyist” who records them. Jiwen “planchette writing” is really a general mention of the texts created through Chinese fuji spirit-writing.
Spirit-writing includes a lengthy history in Chinese folk religion. and it is first recorded (Chao 1942:12) throughout the Liu Song Empire (420-479 CE).
Fuji planchette-writing grew to become popular throughout the Song Empire (960-1279), when authors like Shen Kuo and Su Shi connected its origins with summoning Zigu “Crimson Maiden”, the Spirit from the Latrine. Fuji divination flourished throughout the Ming Empire, and also the Jiajing Emperor (r. 1522-1566) built a unique jitan “planchette altar” within the Forbidden City (Despeux 2007:428). Although the concept of fuji planchette-writing was prohibited through the Qing Empire (1644-1912) Legal Code. it’s ongoing and it is presently practiced at Daoist temples in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Malaysia in addition to folk shrines in China.
Fuji is especially connected using the Quanzhen School of Daoism. The Daozang “Daoist Canon” contains several scriptures supposedly written through spirit-writing. Two examples would be the Zitong dijun huashu “Book of Transformations from the Divine Lord of Zitong” (tr. Kleeman 1994, see Huashu ) and also the Taiyi jinhua zongzhi “Great One’s Key to the Golden Flower” (tr. Wilhelm 1931).
- Chao Wei-pang. 1942. “The foundation and Development of the Fu Chi”. Folklore Studies 1:9-27.
- Clart, Phillip. 2003. “Moral Mediums: Spirit-Writing and also the Cultural Construction of Chinese Spirit-Mediumship”. Ethnologies 25.1:153-190.
- de Groot, J.J.M. 1910. “Spirit-Writing, along with other Oracular Work”. within the Religious System of China. 6:1295-1316, E.J. Brill.
- Despeux, Catherine. 2007. “Fuji planchette writing spirit writing,” within the Encyclopedia of Taoism. erectile dysfunction. Fabrizio Pregadio, Routledge, 428-429.
- Jordan, David K and Daniel L. Overmyer. 1986. The Flying Phoenix: Facets of Chinese Sectarianism in Taiwan. Princeton College Press.
- Kleeman, Terry F. 1994. A God’s Own Tale: It of Transformations of Wenchang, the Divine Lord of Zitong. Condition College of recent You are able to Press.
- Lang, Graeme and Lars Ragvald. 1998. “Spirit-writing and the introduction of Chinese Cults”. Sociology of faith 59.4:309-328.
- Russel, Terence C. 1990. “Chen Tuan at Mount Huangbo: A Spirit-writing Cult at the end of Ming China”, Asiatische Studien/tudes Asiatiques 44.1:107-140.
- Wilhelm, Richard. 1931. The Key from the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Existence. Harcourt Brace.