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# Direct torque control of induction motor thesis proposal

## 4.1 Introduction:

Recently, the study remains focused to discover different solutions for the induction motor control acquiring the options of precise and quick torque response and lower inside the complexness of field oriented algorithms. The direct torque control (DTC) method remains referred to as viable strategy to achieve these needs. The direct torque controlled induction motor drives were developed and presented greater than 20 years ago by I.Takahashi and M. Depenbrock. However, at this time, ABB may be the only industrial company who’ve introduced a commercially ready direct torque controlled induction motor drive. This method draws on the location vector approach, in which the torque and flux in the induction motor may be directly and individually controlled with no coordination transformation. This chapter discusses regarding the fundamental theory of DTC.

## 4.2 Principle of DTC:

The electromagnetic torque in the three-phase induction motor may be written as

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where’s the career relating to the stator flux linkage space vector () and rotor flux linkage space vector (), as proven in Fig. 4.1 the Leakage coefficient provided by .

Movement with active forward vector

Movement with active backward vector

Stops with zero vectors

## Fig. 4.1 movement in compliance with under influence of current vectors

The expression succumbed (4.1) applies for your steady condition and transient condition conditions.

In steady condition both stator flux and rotor flux moves sticking with the same angular velocity. The rotor flux lags the stator flux by torque position. But during transients both of these vectors don’t have exactly the same velocity. From (4.1), it’s apparent the motor torque may be varied by different the rotor or stator flux linkage vectors. The magnitude within the stator flux is generally stored constant. The rotor time constant in the standard squirrel-cage induction machine is very large, thus the rotor flux linkage changes very progressively in comparison to stator flux linkage. So presuming both to obtain constant, it seems sensible from (4.1) that torque may be quickly altered by altering ” within the needed direction. This can be truly the essence of Direct Torque Control (DTC). Inside a short transient, the rotor flux is nearly unchanged, thus rapid changes of electromagnetic torque may be created by rotating the stator flux within the needed direction using the needed torque. However, the stator flux linkage space vector may be altered using the stator voltages.

If for simplicity the concept could be the stator ohmic drops may be neglected, then. so the inverter current directly impresses the stator flux. For a while. once the current vector may be used. Thus, the stator flux linkage space vector moves by for the stator current space vector in the speed proportional to magnitude of current space vector (i.e.

electricity link current). By selecting step-by-step the very best stator current vector, this will make it easy to modify the stator flux within the needed direction. Decoupled charge of the torque and stator flux is achieved by performing around the radial and tangential areas of the stator flux linkage vector within the locus. Both of these components are directly proportional for that areas of the stator current vector within the same directions [4].

Thus, for the torque production, the career plays a huge role. By presuming painstaking motion within the rotor flux linkage space vector, in situation your forward active current vector may be used it causes rapid movement of and torque increases with ”. However, every time a zero current vector can be utilized, the stator flux vector becomes stationary along with the electromagnetic torque will decrease, since is continually proceed along with the position ” decreases. Once the time-frame of zero current space vector is sufficiently extended, your rotor flux linkage space vector will overtake the stator flux linkage space vector, the career ” can transform its sign along with the torque may also change its direction. Thus, you are able to modify the speed of stator flux linkage space vector by altering the ratio relating to the zero and non-zero current vectors. You have to understand that the time-frame of zero current vectors impacts torque oscillations.

By with the 3-phase, two-level, six pulse current source inverter (VSI), you will find six non-zero active current space vectors and two zero current space vectors as proven in Fig. 4.2. The six active current space vectors may be symbolized as

## Fig. 4.2 Inverter current space vectors

According to the position of stator flux linkage space vector, you are able to switch the very best current vectors to deal with both stator flux and torque. For example if stator flux linkage space vector reaches sector I as proven in Fig. 4.3, then current vectors and might increase the stator flux and and may decrease the stator flux. Similarly and might increase the torque and and may decrease the torque. Similarly the best current vectors may be selected for other sectors. Thus, as portrayed within the Fig. 4.3, once the stator flux amplitude should be elevated, a gift vector, phase shifted by an position bigger than 90o regarding existing stator flux linkage space vector () may be used. In comparison, if stator flux amplitude should be reduced, a gift vector, phase shifted by an position under 90o will most likely be used. Similarly, through the use of appropriate current space vector toward rotation of stator flux, torque () may be elevated while using current space vector, that’s opposite for that direction of rotation of stator flux, may be reduced.

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The Fig. 4.4 shows the block diagram of conventional direct torque controlled induction motor drive. There’s two hysteresis control loops, one for the charge of torque along with other for the charge of stator flux. The flux controller controls the system operating flux to keep the magnitude within the operating flux inside the rated value up until the rated speed. Torque control loop maintains the torque close to the torque demand. While using outputs of people controllers along with the immediate position of stator flux vector, a powerful current space vector is chosen.

## 4.3.1 Optimum Switching Vector Selection:

While using outputs of hysteresis controllers and position within the stator flux vector, the optimum switching table will most likely be built. This provides the optimum choice of the switching current space vectors for your possible stator flux linkage space vector positions. In conventional DTC (CDTC), the stator flux linkage and torque errors are restricted within their particular hysteresis bands, that are and wide correspondingly. In situation your stator flux increase is require then in situation your stator flux decrease is needed then. The digitized output signals from the level flux hysteresis controller are believed as,

In situation your torque increase is needed then. in situation your torque decrease is require then. then when no difference in the torque is needed then. The digitized output signals within the three level torque hysteresis controller for the anticlockwise rotation or forward rotation is,

As well as for clockwise rotation or backward rotation

In line with the. and inside the stator flux linkage space vector, the best switching current vector is made a decision inside the lookup table, that’s succumbed Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Optimum current switching vector lookup table

The adaptive motor model is the reason generating four internal feedback signals, that are

The first two values are important for your correct operation of DTC. The stator flux along with the torque outputs within the adaptive motor model resemble using this of actual values. The stator flux, torque and stator flux linkages phasor position may be believed by using (4.3) – (4.5).

The rate within the induction motor may be believed by using various algorithms as reported within the literature. Because the rotor speed is calculated during this model, there’s it’s not necessary to feedback any shaft speed or position with tachometers or encoders. This really is frequently a substantial advance total other AC drive technology.

## 4.4 Sliding Mode Speed Control for DTC:

The squirrel-cage induction motors are extremely economical, rugged, reliable and accessible inside the ranges of fractional hp to multi megawatt capacity. Hence, the induction motor drives with cage-type motors are really the workhorses in niche for variable speed applications. However, the induction motor drives exhibit significant nonlinearities in high finish control methods because of parameter variation and cargo torque disturbances. To overcome these problems, variable structure control (VSC) with sliding mode control (SMC) was suggested noisy . 1950’s by Emelyanov. A SMC obtaining a VSC is essentially an adaptive control that provides robust performance in the drive with parameter variation and cargo torque disturbances. This control is nonlinear and it is put on a vertical line or nonlinear plant. In a SMC, because the name signifies, the drive fact should track or slide along a predefined trajectory or reference model within the phase plane getting a switching control formula, regardless of the plant’s parameter variation and cargo disturbance.

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A VSC control design breaks lower into two phases. The first phase should be to design or made a decision around the switching surface, and so the plant condition limited to the top level has preferred dynamics. The 2nd phase should be to design a switched control which will drive the flower condition for that switching surface also it across the switching surface also it initially glance upon interception. A Lyapanov approach enables you to characterize this second design phase. A generalized Lyapunov function, that characterizes the motion within the condition trajectory for that surface, is made the decision based on the surface. For every selected switched control structure, one uncover the gains and so the derivative in the Lyapunov function is negative definite, thus guaranteeing motion within the condition trajectory for that surface.

During this thesis, SMC based speed controller is developed and tested for many load torque disturbances.

## 4.4.1 Usage of SMC TO CDTC:

A Sliding Mode Control (SMC) obtaining a flexible control structure is essentially an adaptive control that provides robust performance in the drive with parameter variation and cargo torque disturbance. In performance, it’s somewhat much like one Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC), nonetheless the look and implementation of SMC are really now is easier. SMC is pertinent to servo drives with electricity motors, induction motors, and synchronous motors for applications for example robot drives, machine tool control, etc. During this thesis, a manuscript variable structure control law through getting an essential sliding mode surface for speed control is suggested to cover the uncertainties which are inside the machine. The block diagram of SMC based CDTC drive is often as proven in Fig 4.5. Within the block diagram ‘SMC’ represents the sliding mode speed controller.

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